Other names: oat grain, oat straw Jamdar (pakistan)
Scientific name: Avena Sativa
Common names: Oat
Ayurvedic names: Atiyav, Mundyav, Yuvika, Jai, Javi,
Chinese names: Yen-mai
Bangladesh names: Jo, Jaee, Jai, Javi
Arabic names: الشوفان (ash-shoofaan)
Rain Forest names:
Approximate number of species known:
Common parts used: Seed, whole plant
Collection: Seed are straw (stalks) are collected in late summer
Height: 1-4 feet
Actions: Anti-depressant, anti-spasmodic, demulcent, nervine, nutritive, stimulant, vulnerary
Known Constituents: Seeds: 50% starch, alkaloids including trigonelline and avenine; saponins, flavones, sterol, Vitamin V
In addition, they contain more than 20 unique polyphenols, avenanthramides, which have shown strong antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo.
It is a rich source of protein, contains a number of important minerals, lipids, β-glucan, a mixed-linkage polysaccharide, which forms an important part of oat dietary fiber, and also contains various other phytoconstituents like avenanthramides, an indole alkaloid-gramine, flavonoids, flavonolignans, triterpenoid saponins, sterols, and tocols
Whole oat groat contains high amounts of valuable nutrients such as soluble fibers, proteins, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. The dietary fiber complex with its antioxidants and other phytochemicals is effective against cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer . Oat groat contains significant amounts of β-glucan that varies between 2.3 and 8.5 g/100 g . β-glucan in oat is distributed through the endosperm and is located in the endosperm cell walls constituting about 75% of the endosperm cell walls. It is also present in the aleurone cell wall lesser than in endosperm .Bran is the edible, outermost layer of the oat kernel and it has total β-glucan and dietary fiber not less than 5.5 and 16.0% respectively with at least one third of total dietary fiber is soluble fiber . Like oatmeal, oat bran contains B complex vitamins, protein, fat, minerals, and heart healthy soluble fiber called β-glucan. Oat bran contains 17.1% protein, 67.9% carbohydrates, 8.6% fat, 15– 22% dietary fiber, 10.4% β-glucan, Neelam Chatuevedi et al Asian J. Plant Sci. Res., 2011, 1(3):103-114 _____________________________________________________________________________ 106 Pelagia Research Library 1.3 mg niacin, 171 mg magnesium, 6.4 mg iron, 0.17 mg copper, 441 mg potassium and α- tocopherol less than 0.5 mg . β-glucan is a cluster of soluble fiber derived from multiple organic sources, including mushrooms, yeast, oats and barley. β-glucan is not a single molecule but is a type of polysaccharide that exists in different sizes and different degrees of solubility and ability to be absorbed into the bloodstream. One can find β-glucan that is big (of high molecular weight) or small (of low molecular weight). There are several different linkages between the different saccharide molecules that make up β-glucan. Molecular linkages can be of a (1, 4) type, a (1, 3) type and a (1, 6) linkage. These are important because each linkage type creates a different molecular shape for the β-glucan and may account for their function inside the body .
Straw: silicic acid, mucin, calcium
Has a hollow stem with joints. The leaves are tough, narrow, flat and rough. The flowers grow in a loose terminal panicle???? wutgth 2 flowered spikelets??? 1 ubcg kibg
the oat plant consists of leaves and a shortened stem, giving a rosette type of plant. The tillers grow into additional ‘‘branch plants’’ or tillers and under favorable conditions, the plant can form up to 30 tillers. The main stem and tillers can reach up to 2 or more feet depending on variety and growing condition . These stems terminate in a large panicle that bears flowers and seeds or kernels. Each main and lateral stem as well as branch stem terminates in a spikelet that is removed during threshing. Generally two kernels, but occasionally one, are produced per spikelet. The oat kernel, also termed groat, is the part after the removal of palea and lemma. It is elongated spindle shaped, up to about 0.5 in. in length and 0.125 in. or less in width. It is generally covered with fine, silky hairs and includes the seed coat layers of cells, starchy endosperm and the embryo
has been cultivated since the Bronze Age https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-0033-1348817
the third leading crop produced in United States after wheat and corn and the fourth most important crop worldwide.
. Traditionally oats have been in use since long and are considered as stimulant, antispasmodic, antitumor, diuretic, and neurotonic. Oat possesses different pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, anticholesterolaemic, e
The grain was introduced into the America in 1602 by a Sea Caption who planted them into the Island of the coast of Massachusetts
Oat or wild oat is annual grass, which is cultivated for its edible grains during early growth;
A herb that has been used for male complaints, particulary prostate problems. In the3 past it has received fame for its high Silicon content. Silicon is the mineral that seems to make the nails and skin bright. Silicon when bonded with two oxygen atoms is called Silicon Dioxide, and sometimes given the name Silica. Silicon in the form of Silicon Dioxide (silica) usually has a pH that is acidic.
Thought of as being a nutritious plant. It has been put in bathes and used as a body wash and for dry skin. It has been used as a nerve and uterine tonic.
Oats have also been used to elevate mood, and because of this have been used in cases of depression, or when stamina is needed to press through a nervous condition. Its fame for elevating mood has seen it used frequently in cases where depression or exha
Oats have also been used in the past to aid withdrawl from tobacco and addiction to other types of drugs.
Externally it has been used to relieve symptoms of eczema.
Oats are a good source of B vitamins and vitamin E. Oats have a low glycemic index and may enhance better blood sugar levels.
Has been used in hair products for hair oiliness.
It’s been used in Pakistan to promote memeory. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Naveed_Akhtar/publication/235661121_Ethnopharmacological_important_plants_of_Jalala_District_Mardan_Pakistan/links/0deec53197b55d56b4000000.pdf
Consumption of moderate amount of oats improve intakes of vitamin B(1), fiber, magnesium and iron in celiac patients using gluten-free diet (GFD).
A study clarified the effect of high amount of both kilned and unkilned oats on food and nutrient intakes in celiac patients in remission. Kilning as an industrial heating process is performed to preserve the main properties of oats and to lengthen its useableness. Kilning may, however, change the protein structure of oats and therefore influence on the intake of nutrients.
The study group consisted of 13 men and 18 women with celiac disease in remission. The patients who were earlier using moderate amount of oats as part of their GFD were randomized to consume kilned or unkilned oats.
After 6 months, the patients changed the treatment groups. The goal of daily intake of oats was 100 g. Food records and frequency questionnaire were used to follow nutrient intakes.
Type of oats did not affect the amount of oats used. In the group using kilned oats, the intake of vitamin B1 and magnesium and in the group of unkilned oats that of magnesium and zinc increased significantly during the first 6 months.
It was concluded that large amounts of oats, both kilned and unkilned in GFD, can increase intakes of nutrients in celiac patients in remission. Oats improve the nutritional value of GFD.
Another study evaluated the potential effectiveness of ‘carbohydrate days’ as a dietary intervention to overcome insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.
Patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance as defined by a dosage of more than 1 IU/day (*)kg BW were consecutively enrolled in this prospective study. Primary outcomes were daily insulin requirement and mean blood glucose levels which were evaluated before, after, and 4 weeks after the intervention.
All patients had a metabolic syndrome, 75% had microvascular and 57.1% macrovascular complications. Hospital setting and diabetes adapted diet alone led to improved glycemic control with a mean blood glucose 158+/-47 mg/dl.
Intervention with two days of oatmeal diet further decreased mean blood glucose to 118+/-37 mg/dl. This was associated with a significant reduction of insulin dosage by 42.5% (before: 145+/-68.9 U/d, after 83+/-34.2 U/d, p<0.001) as well as a significant reduction (-26.4%, p<0.01) of serum leptin levels.
After the four weeks outpatient period, insulin dosage remained significantly decreased. Glycemic control was comparable to glucose levels within the hospital setting. Adiponectin levels increased significantly by 53.8%.
In this uncontrolled pilot study, hospital admission and diabetes adapted diet followed by oatmeal intervention achieved a approximately 40% reduction of insulin dosage required to achieve controlled glucose levels. This effect was conserved after a 4 week outpatient phase with normal diet.
Kemppainen TA, Heikkinen MT, Ristikankare MK, Kosma VM, Julkunen RJ. “Nutrient Intakes During Diets Including Unkilned And Large Amounts Of Oats In Celiac Disease.” 2010 January http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19756027
Lammert A, Kratzsch J, Selhorst J, Humpert PM, Bierhaus A, Birck R, Kusterer K, Hammes HP. “Clinical Benefit Of A Short-Term Dietary Oatmeal Intervention In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes And Severe Insulin Resistance: A Pilot Study.” 2008 February http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18095234
Oats as an anti oxidant
Oat milling fractions were examined for concentrations of total phenolics, tocols, and phenolic acids and in vitro antioxidant activity to determine their potential as dietary antioxidants. Methanolic extracts of pearling fractions, flour and aspirations from flaking, and trichomes had high, intermediate, and low antioxidant activities, respectively, evaluated by the β-carotene bleaching method. Pearling fractions were also highest in total phenolics and tocols. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid were identified and quantified by HPLC. Three avenanthramides and an unidentified ferulate derivative were also detected. Total phenolic content was significantly correlated with antioxidant activity, and regression equations that predicted antioxidant activity from phenolic and tocol concentrations were calculated. Antioxidant activity, evaluated by β-carotene bleaching, was correlated with measures of oxygen radical absorbance capacity and low-density lipoprotein oxidation. These data indicate a potential for oat products, especially those enriched in outer layers of the groat, to contribute to dietary intakes of antioxidant phytonutrients.
Oats in wound healing
The present study provides a scientific evidence for the traditional usage of A. sativa in the management of wound healing.
Oats in shampoo for greasy hair
Oats to heal wounds without scarring
The results of this experiment showed that all extracts decreased the time of wound healing significantly in comparison with the controls groups. There was no symptom of colloid even scar
Herb Name: Oat Straw
Latin name: Avena sativa
Common part used:
Oat straw was once most well-known for its use in mattresses. It was used to stuff them and it was believed that an oat straw mattress would improve rheumatism. While other parts of the oat plant are also used, oat straw is particularly important for medicinal uses.
Oat straw is actually an anti-depressant and can assist with mild improvements in mood. It helps to relieve anxiety and generally provide energy. Oat straw can also be used to treat skin conditions such as eczema. In addition, oats are considered a very healthy food that helps with overall nutrition.
Oat straw grows in moderate temperatures such as Northern Europe. It grows well in dry wastelands, cultivated ground and meadows alike. It is a hardy zone 2-type plant that can be grown in heavier soils although it normally prefers sandy or loamy soils. It requires good drainage but can grow in a high acid soil. It does require sun, and cannot grow in the shade. Oat Straw tolerates drought well. Although it is widely distributed as a cereal crop it is just as often found in garden beds, or planted to prevent soil erosion. The fruit, seeds and straw are typically gathered in August.
Oat straw is particularly useful for improving mood.
Anti-depressant: Oat straw can be used to help elevate mood. It can be used to combat depression and it can help lift someone who is feeling fatigued.
Skin: Oat straw can be used to treat skin irritations.
Herb Name: Oat
Latin name: Avena sativa
Common part used:
Seeds and whole plant
The common oat is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name. While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatmeal and rolled oats, one of the most common uses is as livestock feed.
Oats are generally considered “healthy”, or a health food, being touted commercially as nutritious. The discovery of the healthy cholesterol-lowering properties has led to wider appreciation of oats as human food.
Oats have numerous uses in food; most commonly, they are rolled or crushed into oatmeal, or ground into fine oat flour. Oatmeal is chiefly eaten as porridge, but may also be used in a variety of baked goods, such as oatcakes, oatmeal cookies, and oat bread. Oats are also an ingredient in many cold cereals, in particular muesli and granola. Oats may also be consumed raw, and cookies with raw oats are becoming popular.
Oat extract can also be used to soothe skin conditions, e.g. skin lotions. It is the principal ingredient for the Aveeno line of products.
Medicinal Uses: In folk medicine, oats were used to treat nervous exhaustion, insomnia, and “weakness of the nerves.” A tea made from oats was thought to be useful in rheumatic conditions and to treat water retention. A tincture of the green tops of oats was also used to help with withdrawal from tobacco addiction. Oats were often used in baths to treat insomnia and anxiety as well as a variety of skin conditions, including burns and eczema.
• high cholesterol
• high triglycerides
• nicotine withdrawal
Oats is one of the best remedies for feeding the nervous system, especially when under stress. Oats is considered a specific in cases of nervous debility and exhaustion when associated with depression. May be used with most of the other nerviness, both relaxant and stimulatory, to strengthen the whole of the nervous system. It is also used in general debility. The high level of silicic acid in the straw is taken advantage of in its use as a remedy for skin conditions, especially in external applications.