Periodic Motion

• Periodic motion is performed, for example, by a rocking chair, a bouncing ball, a vibrating tuning fork, a swing in motion, the Earth in its orbit around the Sun, and a water wave.

Wave

• A wave transfers energy through a medium, without needing to transfer objects
• Wave can be thought of as a disturbance or oscillation that travels through space-time, accompanied by a transfer of energy.
• Wave motion transfers energy from one point to another, often with no permanent displacement of the particles of the medium â€”that is, with little or no associated mass transport.

Transverse Waves

• A transverse wave is a moving wave whose oscillations are perpendicular to the direction of the wave. A simple example is given by the waves that can be created on a horizontal length of string by anchoring one end and moving the other end up and down.
• Transverse Waves are like a guitar string

Longitudinal Wave

• Longitudinal waves are waves in which the displacement of the medium is in the same direction as, or the opposite direction to, the direction of propagation of the wave.
• Longitudinal Waves are like a slinky or spring

Oscillation

• Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value or between two or more different states. The term vibration is precisely used to describe mechanical oscillation. Familiar examples of oscillation include a swinging pendulum and alternating current.
• The oscillations of the wave are in the same direction as the motion of the wave

Amplitude

• The amplitude of a wave refers to the maximum amount of displacement of a particle on the medium from its rest position. In a sense, the amplitude is the distance from rest to crest. Similarly, the amplitude can be measured from the rest position to the trough position.

Wavelength

• Wavelength is the distance between identical points in the adjacent cycles of a waveform signal propagated in space or along a wire. In wireless systems, this length is usually specified in meters, centimeters, or millimeters.

Phase

• Wave phase is the offset of a wave from a given point. When two waves cross paths, they either cancel each other out or compliment each other, depending on their phase. These effects are called constructive and destructive.

Period

• It is the time between repeated cycles

Frequency

• It is the number of cycles per second

Wave Velocity

• Wave velocity in common usage refers to speed, although, properly, velocity implies both speed and direction. The velocity of a wave is equal to the product of its wavelength and frequency (number of vibrations per second) and is independent of its intensity.
• Velocity is determined by the medium the wave is in

Sound

• Sound is waves of pressure through a medium

Light

• Light is waves of electromagnetism
• A wave that moves with velocity

Springs

• Springs have restorative forces
• Spring can be seen as a device that stores potential energy, specifically elastic potential energy, by straining the bonds between the atoms of an elastic material.

Pendulum

• A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely. When a pendulum is displaced sideways from its resting, equilibrium position, it is subject to a restoring force due to gravity that will accelerate it back toward the equilibrium position.
• For small angles, pendulums can be considered to have restorative forces.