Biolegical molecules, or materials are a term for molecules that are present in organism essenetial for bioligical process or processes. People typically think in humans of the macro molecules proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids.

Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen make up 96% of the body’s mass. We think of biological molecules as being an essential source and storage of energy, and providing the various materials living organisms need for vital processes, that structural and functional things can be assembled.

William Prout was an English Physician and chemist. He originally ha “Prout’s hypothesis” which we now know as being incorrect. The hypothesis that hydrogen is the fundmanetal particle that other atoms were based on. It turned out to be incorrect. Ernest Rutherford partly named the proton after him. Prout published forty papers, and five booksm in 1817 he isolated purified urea ( CO(NH2)2 ), the nitrogenous waste product from the urine.

It is the main nitrogen containing compound in the urine of mammals.
Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen can slo be contained in human urine.

William Prout originally recognised fat (“oily”), protein (“albuminous”),

Most animals including humans have excretory system for eliminatio nof soluble toxic wastes. In humans we remove soluble wastes primarily through the urinary system, and to a lesser extent via perspiration. The urinary system in humans contains the kidneys, bladder, urthera and ureters. The constitutents of human urine is usually > 90% water in addition to inorganic salts, organic compounds, proteins, hormones and other metabolites of the body.

Out of solids in urine urea is the largest containing more than 50% of the total. It was discovered in 1828 that urea can be produced from inorganic starting materials which was significant at the time. It was the first time a substance was synthesised in a laboratory which was a by product of life, which killed the doctrine of vitalism, which believe the chemicals of life could only be produced by living organisms themselves.

Interestingly some soil bacteria possess an enzyme “urease” which convertes urea to ammonia, or ammonium ion, and bicarbonate ion.

Other contributions Prout made to our knowledge is the discovery of hydrochloric acid (hcl) as the primary acid in gastric juice, and iodine as a potential remedy for goiter, after iodine salts was found in various marine life forms, after burnt sponge which is a marine life form was used at the time for goiter.


Carbonhydrate is a synonym for saccharide (saccharide comes from the Greek word sakkharon meaning sugar) which includes sugars, starch and cellulose. The simplest of these is called glucose. There is also fructose which has the same chemical formula as glucose, but is arranged differently.

There are things called disaccharides which is as the name implies simply two sugars joined together. Sucrose being probably the most well known example which is a glucose and a fructose joined together.

Poly saccharides can be thousands of sugar units joined together. Cellulose is the most common structural compound in plantsa polysaccaride that can contain hundreds or thousands of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. It is the main copnent in walls of plant cells. Humans cannot digest cellulose.

Mono and di saccarides are considered easier for the body to process than their more complex counterparts.

Startch is a carbohydrate conisting of glucose units. It’s the most common carbohydrates in thehuman diet. It consistens of amylopectin, and amylose.ts.

Humans tend to store glucose in the form of glycogen.


Lipids are smaller and simpler than complex carbohydreates, There ponds are mostly non polar which means they have a difficult time dissolving in water. Fats are mainly made up of glycerol, and fatty acids. Three fatty acid molecules connected to three glycerols this is called a “triglyceride”. So fatty acids, and glyercol are the building blocks of triglycerides.

Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids – saturated with carbon?A saturated fat is a type of fat where all the fatty acid chains have all or predominatly single bonds.
An unsaturated fat has at least one double bond in the fatty acid chain.

There’s also phopholipids, one end is attracted to water (polar), the other non polar end avoids water. Cholesterol binds with phospholipids to help build cell walls. They can also be activated to turn into lipid hormones. Estradiol, and testosterone being an example.


Proteins are comprised of amino acids. Some are considered essential, some are not considered essential. They are comprised of a carboxyl (COOH) group, an amino group (NH2), and what’s called an R group, which is a variable number for a number of groups that can bond. An R group is sometimes called an “side chain”, and whatever connects to the molecule where the r group is will determine the shape and function of that molecule.

Amino acids form long chains called poly peptides. There are nine essential amino acids because it’s considered we can’t make them ourself.

The essential amino acids are:

  • Histidine
  • Isoleucine
  • Leucine
  • Lysine
  • Methionine
  • Phenylalinine
  • Threonine
  • Tryptophan
  • Valine