Grammar is the way that written and verbal words are arranged in order from sequence. This allows communication between human beings. We believe grammar should be exciting, and is extremely important. Effective grammar will help you communicate more clearly in written and verbal form with other human beings. It can also help you be a better listener, understand, and be able to clarify other people’s communication.
The better you understand grammar, the more prescise you can be with your message. It is a study of understanding others, and in turn being understood yourself.
Communication is the process of communicating through our senses: sight, sound, taste, touch and smell to impart a message. In this section we will focus on the aspect of verbal communication which is communicated through sound, and written communication which people read. Language is a set of words, and how they are put together by a culture or group. If you can’t understand the communication you’ce recieved, ineffective communication has taken place. Communication takes place in a variety of settings.
People use communication as a means of expressing, or conveying feelings, thoughts.
> Written Communication
> Verbal Communication
The form of verbal communication is called speech, which we use with language.
Words are basically made up sounds that are agreed upon universally by speakers of that language to communicate about objects. People some times needed to write down their communication, rather than just verbally. It is believed this was originally done through symbols, hieroglyphs or pictures.
Eventually the Alphabet evolved. The alphabet is a collection of a finitie, or fixed quanitity of letters that allows people to construct words from those letters.
Words serve different purposes. The categories that these words are assigned to are called “parts of speech”.
A sentence is a group of word that together creates a complete message. A sentence without a clear message could be dscribed as an ” incomplete sentence”. For a sentence to be complete it is considered to have a subject, and a verb.
>>> Sentence subjects
We start communicating usually by referring to an objecty.
>>>> Direct objects
>>>> Indirect object
>> Expressing Thought
>>> Full stop (period)
>>> Semi colon
>>> Excalamtion point
>>> Question mark
>>> Quotations marks
>>>> Single quotation marks
> Proper Nouns
> Proper Modifiers
A homonym is when a word that is pronounced, or said the same way, can mean multiple things. Some times these words are spelled the same, and sometimes they are not.
Ambiguity Is a word, phrase or sentence that can have more than one meaning.
A noun is a person, place or thing.
> Common Noun
> Proper Noun
A proper name is a specific name of a person, place, or thing. The first letters of these words are capitilised.
A pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun. It is used to save you saying a noun repeatedly. Once you use a noun, like the man called Frank. You could subsequently use pronouns such as he, or his etc.
Example: He, She, Her, His, Yours, It, These, Those, This, Who, What
> Personal pronouns
Personal pronouns are to do with people. Personal pronouns can refer to the first, second or third person.
When you are talking about yourself this is called the first person. When you are talking about someone else this is called the second person. The third person refers to anyone other thasn the speaker, and the one being addressed.
In English, singular is referring to one.
In English, plural is referring to more than one. That is two or more.
> First person
>> First person singular
The first person singular means the person is speaking about themself.
>> First person plural
The first person plural means the person is referring to themself, and one or more others.
Examples: I, me, myself
> Second person
>> Second person singular
This means the speaker is addressing one person.
Examples: you, your, you’re (you are)
>> Second person plural
This means the person is addressing two or more people.
> Third person
>> Third person singular
Third person is adressing someone other than the speaker, the one being adressed, but another party.
I, mine, me
>> Third person plural
We ours us
> Reflexive pronouns
Reflexive pronouns are when the subject and the object of the sentence are both the same. Reflexvie bending back. This is when the person performing the action, also receives the action.
> Demonstrative pronouns Demonstrative pronouns are pronouns that refer to specific things. Deomstartive means showing. This helps to show the noun that is being talked about.
Examples: This, that, those
> Interrogative pronouns
Interrogative pronouns are the words in the sentence that form the basis for asking, or introduce a question. They usually start with “wh”. Interrogative means asking a question.
Examples: what, which, who, whom, whose
> indefinite pronouns
An Indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that does not quantify a specific person, place or thing. It can be a vague way of communicating. Indefinite means not statting exactly.
Examples: all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, each, everybody, everyone, everything, few, many, nobody, noone, several, some, somebody, someone
> Relative pronouns
Example: who, whom, whose, that, which
Verb is an action word, or a state of being. A state of being is the way something is, or exists. It’s sometimes called a “doing” word.
> Compound verbs
A verb can be two or more words. Compound meands made of two or more parts.
> Verbs and person
> Verbs tense
Verbs can express time by changing the form of the verb. Tense comes from the Latin word meaning “time”.
Verbs come in three tenses. Past tense is used to describe things that have already happened. Present tense is used to describe things happening now, or that are on going. Future tense is used to describe things that haven’t happened yet, or are presupposed or assumed to happen.
Understanding tense allows you to be more prescise with time.
>> Past tense
>> Present tense
The present tense is used to say something is happening in the now, or it is on going.
>> Future tense
This is used to say something will exist, or happen in the future.
>> Transitive verb
Trans means ” across” in Latin. Transitive means going across to something. It shows the action going out from someone, to something or someone else.
Examples: The rabbit is running. Sally is ringing the verb.
>> Intransative verb
This is when the subject of the sentence does not go across to something else. This is verb that has an object, not getting acted upon by a subject.
Example: The bell rings
>> Verb and subject agreement
Subjects and verbs must agree with each other in number and plural.
>> Verb forms
A grammatical modifier
>> Indefinite article
>> Definite article