Scientific Names: Cannabis sativa
Common names: Bhang, Bud, Grass, Hemp, Huo Ma Re
Chinese names: Huo ma ren, Ye da ma
Bangladesh names: Bhang, Siddhi, Ganja
Arabic names: بذور القنب (bodhooru’lqinnab)
Rain Forest names:
Approximate Number of Species Known:
Common Parts Used: Seeds
Collection: August to october
Height: 3 to 10 feet
Actions: Analgesic-hypnotic, topical anesthetic, antiasthmatic, antibiotic, antiepileptic, antispasmodic, antidepressant, tranquilizer, antitussive, appetite stimulant, oxytoxic, preventative and anodyne for neuralgia (including migraines), aid to phychotherapy, and agent to ease withdrawal from alcohol and opiates
Known Constituents: 19% protein, 31% lipids, choline, trigonelline, zylose, inositol, phytin, enzymes (lipase, maltase, emulsin, linamarase, amylase, urease, nuclease, erepsin, tryptase, calalase)
Description: (please note: this is the general characteristics – colour, flavor etc)
Spasticity is a common and poorly controlled symptom of multiple sclerosis. A study was conducted to determine the short-term effect of smoked cannabis on this symptom.
A placebo-controlled, crossover trial involving adult patients with multiple sclerosis and spasticity was conducted. Participants from a regional clinic or by referral from specialists were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to either the intervention (smoked cannabis, once daily for three days) or control (identical placebo cigarettes, once daily for three days).
Each participant was assessed daily before and after treatment. After a washout interval of 11 days, participants crossed over to the opposite group.
The primary outcome was change in spasticity as measured by patient score on the modified Ashworth scale. The secondary outcomes included patients’ perception of pain (as measured using a visual analogue scale), a timed walk and changes in cognitive function (as measured by patient performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test), in addition to ratings of fatigue.
Thirty-seven participants were randomized at the start of the study, 30 of whom completed the trial. Treatment with smoked cannabis resulted in a reduction in patient scores on the modified Ashworth scale by an average of 2.74 points more than placebo.
In addition, treatment reduced pain scores on a visual analogue scale by an average of 5.28 points more than placebo. Scores for the timed walk did not differ significantly between treatment and placebo.
Scores on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test decreased by 8.67 points more with treatment than with placebo. No serious adverse events occurred during the trial. Smoked cannabis was superior to placebo in symptom and pain reduction in participants with treatment-resistant spasticity.
Despite progress in anti-emetic treatment, many patients still suffer from chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).
A pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial was conducted designed to evaluate the tolerability, preliminary efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of an acute dose titration of a whole-plant cannabis-based medicine (CBM) containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, taken in conjunction with standard therapies in the control of CINV.
Patients suffering from CINV despite prophylaxis with standard anti-emetic treatment were randomized to CBM or placebo, during the 120 h post-chemotherapy period, added to standard anti-emetic treatment.
Tolerability was measured as the number of withdrawals from the study during the titration period because of adverse events (AEs). The endpoint for the preliminary efficacy analysis was the proportion of patients showing complete or partial response.
Seven patients were randomized to CBM and nine to placebo. Only one patient in the CBM arm was withdrawn due to AEs. A higher proportion of patients in the CBM group experienced a complete response during the overall observation period.
The incidence of AEs was higher in the CBM group (86% vs. 67%). No serious AEs were reported. The mean daily dose was 4.8 sprays in both groups. Compared with placebo, CBM added to standard antiemetic therapy was well tolerated and provided better protection against delayed CINV.
Corey-Bloom J, Wolfston T, Gamst A, Jin S, Marcotte TD, Bentley H, Gouaux B. “Smoked Cannabis For Spasticity In Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.” 2012 May http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22586334
Duran M, Perez E, Abanades S, Vidal X, Saura C, Majem M, Arriola E, Rabanal M, Pastor A, Farre M, Rams N, Laporte JR, Capella D. “Preliminary Efficacy And Safety Of An Oromucosal Standardizec Cannabis Extract In Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea And Vomiting.” 2010 November http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21039759
Herb Name: Hemp Seed
Scientific name: Cannabis sativa
Common part used:
The main economic importance of hemp is the fiber, and hemp is often used for rope making, but in history, the seed, either as a paste or as a liniment, was used in folk medicine as a remedy for tumors and cancerous ulcers.
Hemp seed oil contains 57% linoleic (LA) and 19% linolenic (LNA) acids and antioxidants in the form of vitamin E and carotene. Phytosterols, phospholipids, as well as a number of minerals, including calcium, magnesium, sulfur, potassium and phosphorus are also found in the oil.
The 80% unsaturated fat in hemp seed makes it a concentrated source of calories as well as essential fatty acids (EFAs). Hemp seeds are high in Omega-3 GLA, ALA, and DHA, credited with brain and eyesight development and a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Hemp seeds also contain Omega-6 fatty acids in an ideal ratio to Omega-3s, which are both necessary for healthy human nutrition.
Medicinal Uses: The hemp seed oil that is used for cosmetics and skin care products contains a high amount of polyunsaturated essential fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids), which makes it an important ingredient in anti-inflammatory skin care formulations. For this reason it is beneficial, as it helps to heal skin lesions, balance dry skin and fight skin inflammations. It is a non-greasy, emollient and moisturizing compound with excellent anti-aging and moisture balancing properties.
The following benefits are attributed to essential fatty acids in hemp seeds: at a cellular level, they lubricate membranes and eliminate wastes such as lactic acid in post-exercise muscles. EFAs also are important for optimum brain function, improving mood, fighting depression and reducing behavior problems in children, and reversing the irritability of PMS. Essential Fatty Acids help the body’s immune system fight off bacteria, fungi, and viruses, including malaria. These good fats lower cholesterol and protect heart health. Eating hemp seeds over time heals and moisturizes skin, and reduces inflammation. Most important of all to western consumers, the EFAs in hemp seeds have anti-cancer properties that inhibit tumor growth.
The mineral-rich husk of the hemp seed is removed from commercially packaged and hulled seeds, but still they are a good source of calcium, iron, phosphorus, manganese, magnesium, and zinc. A rich source of B vitamins, they also contain vitamins A, D, and K. They are a gluten-free food. High in both soluble and insoluble fiber that bulk stools and improve digestion, hemp seeds are used to treat constipation and hemorrhoids in Asia.