Other names: absinthum, absinthe, green ginger, sweet wormwood absinthe (France) and wermut (Germany),  Absinthium, Wermutkraut, Absinthii Herba, Assenzio, Losna, Pelin, Armoise, Ajenjo and Alsem

The name Artemisia is derived from the Goddess Artemis, the Greek name for Diana, who is said to have discovered the plant’s virtues (Simon et al., 1984), while absinthium comes from the Greek word apintbion meaning “undrinkable”, reflecting the very bitter nature of the plant.


Scientific name: Artemisia absinthum

Common names: 

Ayurvedic names:

Chinese names: Qing hao,   Ou zhou ai (Taiwan),  Yang ai.

Bangladesh names: Nagadana

Arabic names:    شيح ابن سينا  (sheeh ibnu seena)

Rain Forest names:

Family: Asteraceae (daisy family)

Approximate number of species known: 200 / 400

Common parts used: Leaf, Flower, Seeds

Collection: July to October

Annual/Perennial: Perennial

Height: 2 to 4 feet

Actions: anthelmintic, anti-bilious anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, aromatic, carminative emmenagogue, febrifuge, hepatic, stimulant, tonic

Known Constituents: 

20 polyphenolic compounds were identified and quantified in A. absinthium leaves, including hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and other groups of phenolic compounds.

Constituents of aglycones (apigenin, quercetin, quercetin 3,37prime;-dimethyl ether) and flavonoid glycosides (rutin, hyperoside and kaempferol 3-rhamnoside


14 phenolic acids including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-hydroxyphenol acidic acid, vanillic acid, salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid that are responsible for some therapeutic effects. Absinthin and artabsin also have sesqueterpines lactones, sesqueterpinoids alpha thujone, beta tujone, chrysanthenyl acetate thujone


Simple compounds in Wormwood

Artemisia dracunculus, one known alkamide, pellitorine, two new alkamides neopellitorine A and neopellitorine B, and one known coumarin herniarine were isolated.


 the most important being the sesquiterpene lactones that occur with great structural diversity within the genus Artemisia. Additional studies have focused on flavonoids and essential oils 


two new guaianolides and two seco-guaianolides, a nerolidol and a bisabolene derivative, four monoterpenes and two derivatives of p-coumaric acids.


flavonoid, artemisidin A (1), and four coumarins, artemicapins A (2), B (3), C (4) and D


Acyclic monoterpenes, monoterpene hydroperoxide, bicyclic monoterpene glycosides and unusual monoterpenes have been found in some Iranian Artemisiaspecies


R= COMe, Herbolide A (1) R=H, Deacetylherbolide A (2) [29] O O O OAc Herbolide B (3) [29, 34] O O OAc O Herbolide C (4) [29] O OH OAc O Herbolide D (5) [30] O O OH HO Herbolide E (6) [31] O O OH HO Herbolide F (7) [31] O O OH Herbolide G (8) [32] O O OH Herbolide H (9) [32] O O OH OH Herbolide I (10) [32,33] O O OH OAc Torrentin (11) [35] O O H OH Dihydroreynosin (12) [35] O O O 11-Epitaurin (13) [37] HO H CO2Me Vachanic acid (14) [37] O O α,13-Dihydrocostunolide (15)11 [37] O O OAc H 11β,13-Di-Hydrodouglanin acetate (16) [36] ∆ 4(15) (11αH), 11α,13-Dihydroreynosin (17) ∆ 4 (11αH), 11-Epiartesin (18) [36] O O OH α-Hydroxy-7α -eudesma-4(15),11(13)-dien-12-oic acid (19) 5 [38] OH CO2H Figure 3. Sesquiterpene lactones from A. herba-alba growing in Egypt, Morocco, Spain, Algeria and Israel 5 Mohamed et al., Rec. Nat. Prod. (2010) 4:1 1-25 Figure 3. Continued 1β,8α-Dihydroxyeudesm-4-en-6β,7α,11βH-12,6-olide (20) [36] O O OH OH R = OH, ∆ 3 ,5αH, 11α,13-Dihydrosantamarin (21) R = H, ∆ 4,5, 5αH,13-Dihydro-β-cyclocostunolide (22) [37] O O R 3-Epi-erivanin (23) [38] O O OH HO H 1-Oxo-2α,3α,4α,5α-diepoxyeudesman-11βH-12,6α-olide (24) [39] O O O O O 1β-Hydroxy colartin (25) [38] O O OH HO H R1 = H, R2 = Me, R3 = OH, 11-Epicolartin (26) R1 = OH, R2 = Me, R3 = OH, 1β-Hydroxy-11-epicolartin (27) R1 = OH, R2 = Me, R3 = Me, 1β-Hydroxy-4,11-diepicolartin (28) [37] O O H 1β-OH, 1β-Hydroxy-3β-propionyloxy- 6β,7α,11βH-eudesm-4-en-12,6-olide (29) 1α-OH, 1α-Hydroxy-3β-propionyloxy- 6β,7α,11βH-eudesm-4-en-12,6-olide (30) [38] O O OH O O R1 = β-OH, R2 = Ac (11αH), 11-Epitorrentin (31) R1 = α-OH, R2 = Ac (11αH), 1,11-Diepitorrentin (32) R1 = β-OH, R2 = H (11βH), Deacetyltorrentin (33) R1 = βOH, R2 = H (11αH), 11-Epi-deacetyltorrentin (34) [41] O O R = H, 1-Oxo-4α,5α-Epoxyeudesm-2 -en-11βH-12,6α-olide (35) R = OH, 1-Oxo-8α-Hydroxy-4α,5α- epoxyeudesm-2-en-11βH-12,6α-olide (36) [39] O O R O O Constituents and biological activities of Artemisia herba-alba 6 R = R` =H (11αH), 1-Oxoeudesma-2,4-dien -11αH-12,6α-olide (37) R = R` = H (11βH),1-Oxoeudesma-2,4-dien -11βH-12,6α-olide (38) R = OH, R` = H (11αH), 1-Oxo-8α-hydroxy- eudesma-2,4-dien-11αH-12,6α-olide (39) R = OH, R` = H (11βH), 1-Oxo-8α-hydroxy- eudesma-2,4-dien-11βH-12,6α-olide (40) R = H, R` = OH (11βH), 1-Oxo-15-hydroxy- eudesma-2,4-dien-11βH-12,6α-olide (41) [39] O O O R R` R = H, (11αH), 1-Oxo-2α,5α-peroxyeudesm -3-en-11αH-12,6α-olide (42) R = H (11βH), 1-Oxo-2α,5α-peroxyeudesm -3-en-11βH-12,6α-olide (43) R = OH (11βH), 1-Oxo-8α-Hydroxy-2α,5α -peroxyeudesm-3-en-11βH-12,6α-olide (44) [39] O O O R O O R = H, X = O (11αH), 1-Oxogermacra-4,10(14)- dien-6β,7α,11αH-12,6-olide (45) R = OH, X = H, βOH (11αH), 11-Epishonachalin A (46) R = OH, X = H, βOOH (11βH), 1β-Hydroperoxy-8α -hydroxygermacra-4,10(14)-dien-6β,7α,11βH-12,6-olide (47) [36] O O X R 2β-Hydroxy-13-oxo-α-cyperene 48) [43] O HO CHO 1β,5,12-Trihydroxygermacra-1(10), 4(15), 11(13)-triene (49) [43] OH OH OH 3β-Hydroxy-8-oxo-6βH,7αH,11βHgermacran-4(14),9(10)-dien-6,12-olide (50) [42] O O O H OH 7-Hydroxy-5,6-dehydro-4,5-dihydrolyratrol (51) [43] OH OH 2,6,10-Trimethyl-Cis-7,10-oxido-dodeca-3E,11-dien-2-ol-5-one (52) [42] O OH O H Figure 3. Continued 7 Mohamed et al., Rec. Nat. Prod. (2010) 4:1 1-25 O O OR 3 R1 = H, R2 = OH, R3 = Ac, R4 = H, R5 = H, 5a-Hydroxy-11,13-dihydroreynosin acetate (53) R1 = R2 = R3 =R4 = H, R5 = OH, 9b-Hydroxy-11,13-dihydroreynosin (54) [43] O O OH O OH 5β,9β-Dihydroxy-1-Oxo-germacra-1(10),4(15)-dien-12,6-olide (55) [43] O O H OH 1β-Hydroxy-6βH,7αH,11αH-germacran4(5)-10(15)-dien-6,12-olide (56) [42] O HO O H OH 3β, 8α-Dihydroxy-6βH,7aH,11βH-germacran-4(14),9(10)-dien-6,12-olide (57) [42] O O OH O Herbalbin (58) [45] O CH2 COOH H 3( R,4S,7R)-3,7-Dimethyl-4,7-epoxynon-8-enoic acid (59) [44] O OH OH O H 1β,9β-Dihydroxyeudesm-3-en-5α,6β,11βH-12,6-olide (60) [44] O O O OR` R = H, 1-Oxo-9β-Hydroxgermacra-4,10(14)-dien-6β,11βH-12,6-olide (61) R = Ac, 1-Oxo-9β-Acetoxygermacra-4,10(14)-dien-6β,11βH-12,6-olide (62) [44] Figure 3. Continued Constituents and biological activities of Artemisia herba-alba 8 3.2 Flavonoids The flavonoids detected in A. herba-alba show a large structural variation, ranging from common flavone and flavonol glycosides to more unusual highly methylated flavonoids. In studies of the leaves and steams of A. herba-alba collected from Sinai, a total of eight flavonoids O- and C-glycoside were isolated and identified [46, 47]. Examination of the aerial parts of A. herba-alba collected from Lebanese herbal stores led to the isolation of two flavonoids; hispidulin and cirsilineol [48] (Fig. 4). A new flavone, 5,4′- dihydroxy-6,7,3′-trimethoxyflavone, was isolated from the nonglycosidic extract of the aerial parts of A. herba-alba [49]. 4. Phenolic compounds & waxes Chlorogenic acid was observed in A. herba-alba, when a chemical survey of 49 Moroccan medicinal plant species was performed by ESR spectroscopy [50]. During a survey for antiulcerogenic principles of A. herba-alba, eight polyphenolics and related constituents were isolated. These included chlorogenic acid, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, isofraxidin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, rutin, schaftoside, isoschaftoside, and vicenin-2 [51]. In a study of the components of A. herba-alba wax, obtained in 0.23% yield by extraction of the dry plant with ether, contained 32.1% saturated C16-32 acids (35.2% C28 and 26.5% C30), 23.2% saturated. C21-31 hydrocarbons (67.7% C29 and 24.2% C31), 27.1% esters (mainly of saturated C18, C19, and C20 acids and saturated C22 and C24 alcohols.), and 16.96% saturated C16-26 alcohols. (C16 24.71%, C20 10.34%, C22 32.88%, and C24 22.96%) [52]. O O OR OR` R =R` = H, Deacetylherbolide D (63) R = H, R` = Ac, 1b-Hydroxy-9b-acetoxygermacra -4,10(14)-dien-6b,11bH-12,6-olide (64) [44] O O OAc OAc 1β,9β-Diacetoxyeudesm-4-en-6β,11bH-12,6-olide (65) [15]

^pls copy names from here


Oil including absinthol, thujyl, isovaleric acid; sesquiterpenes, flavanoid glycosides

Its active substances include silica, two bitter elements (absinthine and anabsinthine), thujone, tannic and resinous substances, malic acid, and succinic acid. 

sesquiterpenoid lactones include three new santanolides, ludovicin-A (III), -B (VI) and -C (VIII), and the known douglanine (I).  https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0031942200851535

 5,4′-dihydroxy-3,6,7,3′-tetramethoxyflavone, five sesquiterpenoid lactones have been isolated from Artemisia cana Pursh. ssp. cana. These include the new compounds canin, artecanin, and ridentin, and the known matricarin and deacetylmatricarin. The structure of canin, a new guaianolide, has been shown to be IV on the basis of chemical transformations and spectral evidence.


The volatile constituents of Artemisia annua L. plants, grown in the field in The Netherlands from seeds of Chinese and Vietnamese origin, were investigated using GC and GC–MS (EI, NICI) analysis. The plants grown from Chinese seeds contained 4.0% (v/w) essential oil on a dry weight (DW) basis, those from Vietnamese seeds, 1.4% (v/w). More than forty compounds were identified. The principal component of the Chinese oil was artemisia ketone (63.9%); other major constituents included artemisia alcohol (7.5%), myrcene (5.1%), α‐guaiene (4.7%) and camphor (3.3%). In the Vietnamese oil the main components were camphor (21.8%) and germacrene‐D (18.3%); other important constituents were β‐caryophyllene (5.6%), trans‐β‐farnesene (3.8%) and 1,8‐cineole (3.1%). In the Vietnamese variety the terpenoid biosynthesis proceeded further towards sesquiterpenes, whereas in the Chinese predominantly monoterpenes were formed. This was also reflected in the artemisinin contents, found in dichloromethane extracts of the herbaceous plant material: 0.17% (DW) in Chinese and 1.00% (DW) in Vietnamese plants. 


Oil constituents

Common componens of oil

camphor, β-eudesml, 1,8-cineole, borneol, artemisia alcohol, camphene, α-gurjunene, p-cymene, terpinene-4-ol and α-pinene.


75 total components of oil

One study found Forty-two of seventy-five separated constituents in essential oil, accounting for 89.03% of the total content, were identified. 


Artemisia arborescens oil containing 100 components with Thujone, camphor and chamzulne being the majority

Artemisia arborescens L. growing in Sassari (Osilo) in Sardinia. This oil is coloured blue by the presence of relatively high amounts (11.32%) of chamazulene, a substance with anti-inflammatory properties. The oil, after separation in fractions on a silica gel column, was investigated by means of capillary GLC and capillary GLC-MS. Thujone, camphor and chamazulene account for about 75% of the oil. Almost a hundred minor components were found by capillary GLC and 44 were identified.

volatile oils of Artemisia are chemically complex mixtures, often containing in excess of 100 individual components for instance in the oil of Artemisia siberi more than 160 constituents were identified.


y, the oil was largely reported to be composed of monoterpenoids, mainly oxygenated, such as 1,8-cineole, chrysanthenone, chrysanthenol (and its acetate), α/β-thujones, and camphor as the major components 

 samples of A. herba-alba collected at Elat contained chrysanthenyl acetate as major component (31%) followed by chrysanthenol (6.4%) and the acetophenone xanthocyclin, the essential oil of A. herba-alba from the Judean desert exhibited 1,8-cineole as the major compound (50%) followed by appreciable amounts of α- and β-thujone (27%) and other oxygenated monoterpenes such as terpinen-4-ol (3.3%), camphor (3%) and borneol (3%) [


Jordan oil

In Jordan, regular monoterpenes were predominant (39.3%) and the principal components were α- and β-thujones (27.7%). The other major identified components were: sabinyl acetate (5.4%), germacrene D (4.6%), α-eudesmol (4.2%) and caryophyllene acetate (5.7%)

Morocco oilIn Morocco, the oil there was generally characterized by substantial levels of ketones such as α- and βthujones and camphor [65, 66, 67], whereas davanone and/or chrysanthenyl acetate were the major oil

components in other chemotypes

Spanish wormwood oil

Spain showed that monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpene are the most abundant skeletons in A. herba-alba oil, but large amounts of sesquiterpenes were found for some populations. Camphor, 1,8-cineole, p-cymene and davanone were the major components found 

The Spanish oil contained large amounts of sesquiterpenes but lacked significant quantities of thujane derivatives. However, a more recent investigation from Spain showed the sesquiterpene davanone to be the principal component of the oil, which was also dominated by the p-menthane and pinane skeletons

Tunisian wormwood oil

In Tunisian oil oxygenated monoterpenes were found to be the major components of A. herba-alba oil extracted from aerial parts of plants originated from arid regions [76, 77]. In another study of the Tunisian Artemisia herba-alba oil, the main components were cineole, thujones, chrysanthenone, camphor, borneol, chrysanthenyl acetate, sabinyl acetate, davana ethers and davanone. Monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes are found in some samples as major components.

Algerian wormwood oil

 Algerian oil, camphor, α/β-thujones, 1,8-cineole and chrysanthenyl derivatives were the major components [79, 80, 81]. In another studies, camphene (3%), borneol (3.6%), davana ether (8.8%), davanone (36.1%) were the major components [82-88]. The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of A. herbaalba growing wild in M’sila-Algeria, contained camphor (19.4%), trans-pinocarveol (16.9%), chrysanthenone (15.8%) as major components. Monoterpenoids are the main components (86.1%) and the 11 Mohamed et al., Rec. Nat. Prod. (2010) 4:1 1-25 irregular monoterpenes (3.1%) [89]. On the other hand, other components have previously been found in other A. herba-alba oils such as (Z)-jasmone, xanthoxylin were not detected in this oil [90, 91]. One study of A. herba-alba in Cyrenaica (Libya) had reported that the dried grass contained 0.29% of an essential oil containing 6.7% cineole

Constituents Explained: What are Sesquiterpene lactones?

Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) are probably the largest class of secondary metabolites in plants, with over 5000 structures reported to date

What are guaianolide

a group of sesquiterpene lactones isolated from various composite plants of the family AsteraceaeWhat areThujone, camphor and chamzulne?

Carvone and piperitone as anti fungals

The antifungal activity of Artemisia herba-alba was found to be associated with two major volatile compounds isolated from the fresh leaves of the plant. Carvone and piperitone were isolated and identified by GC/MS, GC/IR, and NMR spectroscopy. Antifungal activity was measured against Penicillium citrinum (ATCC 10499) and Mucora rouxii (ATCC 24905). The antifungal activity (IC50) of the purified compounds carvone and piperitone was estimated to be 5 µg/ml and 2 µg/ml against Penicillium citrinum, and 7 µg/ml and 1.5 µg/ml against Mucora rouxii, respectively [99]. In another study, the antifungal activity of the Constituents and biological activities of Artemisia herba-alba 12 essential oils of 25 Moroccan medicinal plants, including A. herba-alba, against Penicillium digitatum, Phytophthora citrophthora, Geotrichum citri-aurantii, and Potrytis cinerea. A. herba-alba essential oil showed only weak antifungal activity at 250 µg/ml concentration [100]. In addition, the effect of A. herbaalba, Eucalyptus, and Rosmarinus essential oils was evaluated on the mycelial growth and toxigenesis of Penicillium aurantiogriseum and P. vindication. A significant decrease in mycelial dry weight was obtained with the addition of 0.05-2.5% of each of the three essential oils in yeast extract sucrose broth. The inhibition of mycelium growth was tested on malt extract agar, Czapeck yeast agar, yeast extract sucrose agar and broth at constant pH, and was highly effective for A. herba-alba, followed by Eucalyptus. A complete inhibition of toxin production was observed with 0.44% of each essential oil for P. aurantiogriseum and 0.22% for P. viridicatum 



A popular herb in the west that not many herbalists realise is toxic in nature.  

Wormwood is a garden plant. It needs moist soil and semi shade to grow. 

Wormwood is commonly found in Europe, Siberia, and United States of America. It is a herbaceous perennial plant, with a hard, woody rhizome. The stems are straight, growing to 0.8-1.2 m (rarely 1.5 m) tall, grooved, branched, and silvery-green. The leaves are spirally arranged, greenish-grey above and white below, covered with silky silvery-white trichomes, and bearing minute oil-producing glands; the basal leaves are up to 25 cm long, bipinnate to tripinnate with long petioles, with the cauline leaves (those on the stem) smaller, 5-10 cm long, less divided, and with short petioles; the uppermost leaves can be both simple and sessile (without a petiole). Its flowers are pale yellow, tubular, and clustered in spherical bent-down heads (capitula), which are in turn clustered in leafy and branched panicles. Flowering is from early summer to early autumn; pollination is anemophilous. The fruit is a small achene; seed dispersal is by gravity.

It grows naturally on uncultivated, arid ground, on rocky slopes, and at the edge of footpaths and fields. The leaves and flowering tops are gathered when the plant is in full bloom, and dried naturally or with artificial heat.


^ Please summariseabove intpo article

Traditional Use:

Used primarily as anti worming and antibacterial, Wormwood is a strong bitter that can help stimulate digestive function.  Used in cases of fever and infection.

Currently one of the main herbs used for malaria.

It was once used for the liver, fevers and to gently invoke appetitie.1   The oil from the wormwood has been used externally for sprains and bruises.  The wormwood oil is never ingested internally.

Wormwood has been considered addictive, and has been advised not to take in too high doses.1
Its use has been claimed to remedy indigestion and gastric pain, it acts as an antiseptic, and as a febrifuge. For medicinal use, the herb is used to make a tea for helping pregnant women during pain of labor. A dried encapsulated form of the plant is used as an anthelmintic.

A wine can also be made by macerating the herb. It is also available in powder form and as a tincture. The oil of the plant can be used as a cardiac stimulant to improve blood circulation. Pure wormwood oil is very poisonous, but with proper dosage poses little or no danger. Wormwood is mostly a stomach and anti bacterial product.  It should not be used in excess. 

The leaves and flower are bitter in taste. ormwood leaves are used as condiment. It is used for flavoring. The shoots are used as insect repellent and are also used against mice. Wormwood is also used in spray against insects.

Wormwood is very bitter in taste. It is used as a remedy for different digestive disorders. It is also considered as tonic for liver and gall bladder. The people with weak digestive system should use Wormwood. The leaves are considered to be good antiseptic and anti-inflammatory. The leaves are chewed to increase appetite. The Wormwood is externally used for treatment of bites and small wounds. Wormwood should be used with expert consultation. 

Furthermore, several species of Artemisia are used in folk medicine, thus; A. vulgaris has been employed in the treatment of painful menstruation and in the induction of labor or miscarriage [8], A. mongolica Fisch has been used as a folk medicine for generations to cure inflammations and colds in northwest China [9], A. pontica L. is well known in Bulgarian folk medicine as a sedative and an appetizer [10]. Artemisia herba-alba Asso, known also as desert wormwood (known in Arabic as shih, Armoise blanche (Fr.)) [11], has been used in folk medicine by many cultures since ancient times, used in Moroccan folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and/or diabetes [12-14]. Herbal tea from this species has been used as analgesic, antibacterial, antispasmodic, and hemostatic agents 


Wormwood traditionally used in Vermouth

It’s prohibition in most countries has meant it has fallen out of favour with certain other plant base flavour such as:  more in favour? Is this true? It was commonly used in Vermouth from X – X
Vermouth is   some times called Ansinthe?  Is there a difference between the two drinks names?  When was it banned? When was it restored? What’s the maximum dose of thujone in different countries please?

Clinical Studies:

Wormwood as potential insecticide properties

Artemisia species, widespread in nature, are frequently utilized for the treatment of diseases such as malaria, hepatitis, cancer, inflammation, and infections by fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Furthermore, some Artemisia constituents were found to be potential insecticides and allelopathic chemicals.


Ussr and cancer consideration

The genus Artemisia is known to contain many bioactive compounds; artemisinin exerts not only antimalarial activity but also profound cytotoxicity against tumor cells [2] and arglabin is employed for treating certain types of cancer in the former USSR 


Wromwood as an anti snake venom
Aqueous extracts of 12 medicinal plants traditionally used in Jordan for the inhibition in humans of snake and scorpion venoms were evaluated for their possible anti-venom activity. Among the plants tested, 9 extracts were found to inhibit the hemolytic activities of both venoms. The most active plant extract was Artemisia herba-alba, which gave 100% inhibition 


Wormwood oil as an anti fungal

A. herba-alba essential oil has been evaluated on various microorganisms. The oil showed a very strong action vs. Candida and Microsporum. 


Wormwood as an insecticide against roundworm

The in-vitro nematicidal activity of methanolic extracts (20 µg/ml) from twenty Jordanian plant species against two species of root-knot nematodes (round worm) was evaluated. The leaf extract of Artemisia herba-alba was the most effective causing 22, 51, and 54% mortality after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure, respectively 


Wormwood as an anti bacterial

The essential oils from four Artemisia herba-alba populations collected in Israel (Sde-Boker, Mizpe Ramon, Judean desert and Elat) were investigated for their antibacterial activity. All the oils had slight antibacterial activities in the concentration range of 1-2 mg/ml. The oils were active against gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella typhosa, Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aerugenosa) and against gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus hemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus). The oil derived from the Sde Boker variety exhibited the highest antibacterial activity, especially against the Streptococcus, Pseudomonas and Serratia strains tested. This oil, as well as those from Mizpe Ramon and the Judean Desert, showed relative high activity against S. sonnei and S. typhosa whereas they were almost inactive against E. coli. The oil derived from plants collected near Elat possessed very low activities.

The oil showed a very strong action vs. Staphylococcus, The inhibiting 13 Mohamed et al., Rec. Nat. Prod. (2010) 4:1 1-25 action of the oils was low vs. the enterobacteria [106]. The aqueous extract of A. herba-alba possessed relatively weak antibacterial activity and virtually little or no inhibitory activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae [110]. The antibacterial activity of A. herba-alba performed against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli showed no significant activity against either species


Wormwood against mcyoplasmas

Mycoplasmas are one of the smallest free-living microorganisms. Unlike other bacteria they lack a rigid cell wall. Hence, they are not susceptible to penicillins and other antimicrobials that act on this structure. Artemisia herba-alba, was one among six Jordanian traditional medicinal plant methanolic extracts that were tested against 32 isolates of Mycoplasma species. The result of this study showed that the most effective plant extract in vitro against all Mycoplasma species was A. herba-alba with MIC values of 3.125-6.25 mg/ml


Wormwood and HIV activity

Antiplatelet aggregation activity and three compounds (10, 17, and 51) demonstrated significant activity against HIV replication in H9 lymphocytic 



Wormwood & an ti plantelt activity

showed antiplatelet aggregation activity and three compounds (10, 17, and 51) – what are the 3 compounds?


Wormwood against larvae & plant fungus

arvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd). trans-Ethyl cinnamate (LD50 = 0.37 μg/larva) was more toxic than piperitone (LD50 = 0.68 μg/larva). The two isolated compounds revealed antifeedant activity in a concentration dependent manner, with complete feeding inhibition at a concentration of 1000 μg/ml. When tested for antifungal activity against four plant pathogenic fungi, the isolated compounds exhibited a moderate to high activity.


Artmeisinin as anti malerial

 artemisinin from Artemisia annua and its worldwide accepted application in malaria therapy is one of the showcase success stories of phytomedicine during the past decades. Artemisinin-type compounds are also active towards other protozoal or viral diseases as well as cancer cells in vitro and in vivo
Anti fungal actvity of  Artemisia dracunculus oil

The isolation and structure elucidation of antifungal constituents of the steam-distilled essential oil fraction of Artemisia dracunculus are described. Antifungal activities of 5-phenyl-1,3-pentadiyne and capillarin against Colletrotichum fragariae, Colletrotichum gloeosporioides, and Colletrotichum acutatum are reported for the first time. The relative abundance of 5-phenyl-1,3-pentadiyne is about 11% of the steam-distilled oil, as determined by GC−MS. Methyleugenol was also isolated and identified as an antifungal constituent of the oil.

Artmesia leaves increase monocytes in chickens

Artmesia leaves increased monocyte levels inchickens with no effect on gastric pH or anti bodies.


Anti bacterial effects of x
These compounds showed insecticidal activity against Sitophilus oryzaeand Rhyzopertha dominica

These compounds showed insecticidal activity against Sitophilus oryzaeand Rhyzopertha dominica


Artmeisa ffect on Malaria in Uganda

Malaria is major public health problem in Uganda endemic in 95% contributing up to 40% of hospital outpatient attendances

Artemisinin as a phytotoxin to other plants
Artemisinin (qinghaosu), a sesquiterpenoid lactone peroxide constituent of annual wormwood (Artemisia annua L. # ARTAN) that is used as an antimalarial drug, was tested for phytotoxic properties


Wormwood as having a potential beneficial effect on cyotokines

Needs summary


Wormwood and enzyme activity perturbed by lead 
Needs summary


Wormwqood and IgA neuroatphy

Needs summary reduces TNF in kidneys


Wormwood in Iran & potential anti depressant

Needs summary


Wormwood and potential anti oxidant properties

Needs summary


Wormwood and anti coccidial properties in goats

Neds summary


Artmisia and staphloccous areus

Anti bacterial activity agasint s. Areus Needs saummary


Toxcicity of Thujone

Neuro toxicty is the main consequence of excess Thujone consumption although further study is considered