Hip Bone

  • Made up of three bones fused together: Ischium, ilium and pubis
  • is a large irregular bone, constricted in the center and expanded above and below.


  • is the uppermost and largest part of the hip bone, and appears in most vertebrates including mammals and birds, but not bony fish. All reptiles have an ilium except snakes, although some snake species have a tiny bone which is considered to be an ilium.
  • Most superior and largest of the three bones
  • Forms superior part of the acetabulum


  • forms the lower and back part of the hip bone (os coxae). Situated below the ilium and behind the pubis, it is one of these three bones whose fusion creates the hip. The superior portion of this bone forms approximately one third of the acetabulum.
  • Postero-inferior aspect of hip bone and acetabulum


  • Antero-lateral part of hip bone and anterior aspect of the acetabulum
  • The pubis, or pubic bone, is one of the bones that make up the pelvis. It is ventral and anterior. In other words, it is at the front in humans, and below in most other mammals. The left and right hip bones join at the pubic symphysis. In the female, the pubic bone in front is covered by the urethral sponge.


  • is the longest and strongest bone in your body. Because the femur is so strong, it usually takes a lot of force to break it. Motor vehicle collisions, for example, are the number one cause of femur fractures. The long, straight part of the femur is called the femoral shaft.


  • Large sesamoid bone, develops intratendinously after birth
  • also known as the kneecap, is a flat, circular-triangular bone which articulates with the femur (thigh bone) and covers and protects the anterior articular surface of the knee joint.


  • Larger than the fibula; weight bearing
  • The tibia is a large bone located in the lower front portion of the leg. The tibia is also known as the shinbone, and is the second largest bone in the body. There are two bones in the shin area: the tibia and fibula, or calf bone.


  • Slender and positioned posterolaterally to tibia
  • Attached to tibia via interosseous membrane
  • The fibula or calf bone is a leg bone located on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below. It is the smaller of the two bones and in proportion to its length, the slenderest of all the long bones.


  • Bones of the foot include the tarsus, metatarsus and phalanges


  • a group of small bones between the main part of the hind limb and the metatarsus in terrestrial vertebrates. The seven bones of the human tarsus form the ankle and upper part of the foot. They are the talus, calcaneus, navicular, and cuboid and the three cuneiform bones.


  • The calcaneus, also called the heel bone, is a large bone that forms the foundation of the rear part of the foot. The calcaneus connects with the talus and cuboid bones.


  • the large bone in the ankle that articulates with the tibia of the leg and the calcaneum and navicular bone of the foot.


  • The navicular is a boat-shaped bone located in the top inner side of the foot, just above the transverse. It helps connect the talus, or anklebone, to the cuneiform bones of the foot.


  • is one of the seven tarsal bones located on the lateral (outer) side of the foot. This bone is cube-shaped and connects the foot and the ankle. It also provides stability to the foot.


  • any of three small bones of the tarsus situated between the navicular and the first three metatarsals: a : one on the medial side of the foot that is just proximal to the first metatarsal bone and is the largest of the three bones. — called also medial cuneiform, medial cuneiform bone.

Iliotibial Tract

  • is a longitudinal fibrous reinforcement of the fascia lata. The action of the ITB and its associated muscles is to extend, abduct, and laterally rotate the hip. In addition, the ITB contributes to lateral knee stabilization.

Venous Drainage

  • the systemic venous system refers to veins that drain into the right atrium without passing through two vascular beds (i.e. they originate from a set of capillaries and do not pass through a second set of capillaries before reaching the right side of the heart

Small saphenous Vein

  • is where the dorsal vein from the fifth digit (smallest toe) merges with the dorsal venous arch of the foot, which attaches to the great saphenous vein (GSV)
  • Usually it drains into the popliteal vein, at or above the level of the knee joint.

Cutaneous Innervation

  • Cutaneous innervation refers to the area of the skin which is supplied by a specific cutaneous nerve. Dermatomes are similar; however, a dermatome only specifies the area served by a spinal nerve.

Lumbosacral Plexus

  • The lumbar plexus is a web of nerves (a nervous plexus) in the lumbar region of the body which forms part of the larger lumbosacral plexus. It is formed by the divisions of the first four lumbar nerves (L1-L4) and from contributions of the subcostal nerve (T12), which is the last thoracic nerve.
  • Somatic nerves supplying the lower limb all originate from the lumbosacral plexus- analogous to the Brachial Plexus in the upper limb

Sacral Plexus

  • the sacral plexus is a nerve plexus which provides motor and sensory nerves for the posterior thigh, most of the lower leg and foot, and part of the pelvis. It is part of the lumbosacral plexus and emerges from the lumbar vertebrae and sacral vertebrae (L4-S4).

Sciatic Nerve

  • is a large nerve in humans and other animals. It begins in the lower back and runs through the buttock and down the lower limb. It is the longest and widest single nerve in the human body, going from the top of the leg to the foot on the posterior aspect. The sciatic nerve provides the connection to the nervous system for nearly the whole of the skin of the leg, the muscles of the back of the thigh, and those of the leg and foot. It is derived from spinal nerves L4 to S3. It contains fibers from both the anterior and posterior divisions of the lumbosacral plexus.
  • Largest nerve in the body
  • Supplies the majority of muscles in the lower limb except in the gluteal region, anterior thigh and medial thigh

Coccygeal Plexus

  • The coccygeal plexus originates from the S4, S5, and Co1 spinal nerves. It is interconnected with the lower part of the sacral plexus. The only nerve in this plexus is the anococcygeal nerve, which serves sensory innervation of the skin in the coccygeal region.

Gluteal Region

  • The gluteal region is an anatomical area located posteriorly to the pelvic girdle, at the proximal end of the femur
  • The muscles in this region move the lower limb at the hip-joint.

Popliteal Fossa

  • is a shallow depression located at the back of the knee joint. The bones of the popliteal fossa are the femur and the tibia.
  • A fat-filled diamond-shaped space located posterior to the knee joint    
  • Contains all the neurovascular structures that pass from the thigh to the leg

Anterior Thigh Muscles

  • The muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh are innervated by the femoral nerve (L2-L4), and as a general rule, act to extend the leg at the knee joint. There are three major muscles in the anterior thigh – the pectineus, sartorius and quadriceps femoris.

Medial Thigh

  • The medial compartment of thigh is one of the fascial compartments of the thigh and contains the hip adductor muscles and the gracilis muscle. The obturator nerve is the primary nerve supplying this compartment.

Quadriceps Femoris

  • The quadriceps femoris is a group of muscles located in the front of the thigh. The Latin translation of ‘quadriceps’ is ‘four headed,’ as the group contains four separate muscles: the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius, and the rectus femoris.

Adductor Magnus

  • The adductor magnus is a large triangular muscle, situated on the medial side of the thigh.

Adductor Longus

  • the adductor longus is a skeletal muscle located in the thigh. One of the adductor muscles of the hip, its main function is to adduct the thigh and it is innervated by the obturator nerve. It forms the medial wall of the femoral triangle.

Adductor Brevis

  • is a muscle in the thigh situated immediately deep to the pectineus and adductor longus. It belongs to the adductor muscle group. The main function of the adductor brevis is to pull the thigh medially.


  • The gracilis muscle is one of the muscles found in the groin. It starts at the external point of the ischiopubic ramus (on the pubic bone) and extends down to the upper medial (middle) shaft of the tibia, or shinbone. The gracilis is responsible for hip adduction and assists knee flexion.

Pes Anserinus

  • refers to the conjoined tendons of three muscles that insert onto the anteromedial (front and inside) surface of the proximal extremity of the tibia. The muscles are the sartorius, gracilis and semitendinosus sometimes referred to as the guy ropes.

Femoral Triangle

  • The femoral triangle (or Scarpa’s triangle) is an anatomical region of the upper third of the thigh. It is a subfascial space which appears as a triangular depression below the inguinal ligament when the thigh is flexed, abducted and laterally rotated.

Adductor Canal

  • is a narrow conical tunnel located in the thigh. It is approximately 15cm long, extending from the apex of the femoral triangle to the adductor hiatus of the adductor magnus.

Fibularis Longus

  • also referred to as the peroneus longus, is a muscle inside the outer area of the human leg, which everts (bends in an outward direction) and flexes the ankle. The muscle is attached to the head of the fibula and is controlled by the fibular nerve.

Fibularis Brevis

  • is a short, peroneal muscle that lies just underneath the peroneus longus muscle. The peroneal muscles extend along the outer portion of the lower leg and foot.
  • The muscle assists in the flexion that moves the ball of the foot away from the body.


  • the gastrocnemius forms half of the calf muscle. Its function is plantar flexing the foot at the ankle joint and flexing the leg at the knee joint.


  • The soleus is the plantar flexor muscle of the ankle. It is capable of exerting powerful forces onto the ankle joint. It is located on the back of the lower leg and originates at the posterior (rear) aspect of the fibular head and the medial border of the tibial shaft.


  • The plantaris is a small muscle that courses along the posterior aspect of the leg as part of the posterosuperficial compartment of the calf. Often thought of as a vestigial, accessory muscle, the plantaris muscle is absent in only 7–20% of limbs.


  • Thin layer that is continuous with the extensor retinaculum


  • Deep fascia is continuous with the plantar fascia that is thickened centrally as the toughened plantar aponeurosis

Quadratus Plantae

  • The quadratus plantae (also quadratus plantae muscle, flexor accessorius, latin: musculus quadratus plantae) is a muscle of the sole of the foot that aids in flexion to the second to fifth toes.


  • The lumbricals are intrinsic muscles of the hand that flex the metacarpophalangeal joints and extend the interphalangeal joints.