Scientific name: Zinigiber officinalis

Common names: African Ginger, Black Ginger, Race Ginger, White Ginger

Ayurvedic names: Srangavera

Chinese names: Jiang; Sheng jiang (fresh)

Bangladesh names: Ada

Arabic names:    زنجبيل (zanjabeel)

Rain Forest names:

Family: Zingiberaceae

Approximate number of species known:

Common parts used: Rhizome

Collection:    The root is normally dug up when the leaves are dry

Annual/Perennial: Perennial

Height: 0.6-1.2 metres

Actions:  Anti-emetic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, Anti-spasmodic, Aromatic, Carminative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, perihperal circulatory stimulant, pungent, rubefacient, sialoguge, spasmolytic, stimulant

Known Constituents:  Oils including zingiberen, zingiberole, phellandrene, borneol, cineole, citral, starch, mucilage, resin

Constituents Explained:


leaf:  1-2cm wide

2-3cm long

The flowers are yellowish-green and have purples streaks.  In spring it sends up stlkas like reeds with narrow lanceolate leaf (picture) which are about 2 feet high and die annually.  The stalk ends in a Spike. On top of these spikes is a white or yellow blossom. Tends to be cultivated in tropical areas.

Traditional Use:

One of the most well known spices used in food preparation for thousands of years.  

An anti-spasmodic, used to calm digestion, ease griping and cramping in cathartic herbs. It has been used as a heating agent.

Used to relive nausea, motion sickness and morning sickness.

Its use as an anti inflammatory has seen it used more in treating arthritic pain. It is sometimes added to a bath to help relive muscle pain.

Its also been used to lower cholesterol levels and fight stomach ulcers and to stimulate circulation

Ginger has been used to gently regulate menstruation and relief the associated pain. 

Chewing the actual root has been used to stimulate saliva production. It can sometimes induce sweating.

Clinical Studies:

Evidence suggests that ginger consumption has anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, glucose-sensitizing, and stimulatory effects on the gastrointestinal tract. A study assessed the effects of a hot ginger beverage on energy expenditure, feelings of appetite and satiety and metabolic risk factors in overweight men.

Ten men, age 39.1±3.3 y and body mass index (BMI) 27.2±0.3kg/m(2), participated in this randomized crossover study. Resting state energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry and for 6h after consumption of a breakfast meal with or without 2g ginger powder dissolved in a hot water beverage. 

Subjective feelings of satiety were assessed hourly using visual analog scales (VAS) and blood samples were taken fasted and for 3h after breakfast consumption. There was no significant effect of ginger on total resting energy expenditure or respiratory quotient.

There was a significant effect of ginger on thermic effect of food but the area under the curve was not different. VAS ratings showed lower hunger, lower prospective food intake and greater fullness with ginger consumption versus control.

There were no effects of ginger on glucose, insulin, lipids, or inflammatory markers. The results, showing enhanced thermogenesis and reduced feelings of hunger with ginger consumption, suggest a potential role of ginger in weight management. Additional studies are necessary to confirm these findings.

Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are major adverse effects of chemotherapy. Ginger has been used in postoperative and pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. Data on its utility in reducing CINV in children and young adults are lacking.

Sixty chemotherapy cycles of cisplatin/doxorubicin in bone sarcoma patients were randomized to ginger root powder capsules or placebo capsules as an additional antiemetic to ondensetron and dexamethasone in a double-blind design. 

Acute CINV was defined as nausea and vomiting occurring within 24 hr of start of chemotherapy (days 1-4) and delayed CINV as that occurring after 24 hr of completion of chemotherapy. CINV was evaluated as per Edmonton’s Symptom Assessment Scale and National Cancer Institute criteria respectively.

Acute moderate to severe nausea was observed in (93.3%) cycles in control group as compared to (55.6%) cycles in experimental group. Acute moderate to severe vomiting was significantly more in the control group compared to the experimental group (76.7%) vs. (33.33%) respectively.

Delayed moderate to severe nausea was observed in (73.3%) cycles in the control group as compared to (25.9%) in the experimental group. Delayed moderate to severe vomiting was significantly more in the control group compared to the experimental group (46.67%) vs. (14.81%).

Ginger root powder was effective in reducing severity of acute and delayed CINV as additional therapy to ondensetron and dexamethasone in patients receiving high emetogenic chemotherapy.


Mansour MS, Ni YM, Roberts AL, Kelleman M, Roychoudhury A, St-Onge MP. “Ginger Consumption Enhances The Thermic Effect Of Food And Promotes Feeling Of Satiety Without Affecting Metabolic And Hormonal Parameters In Overweight Men: A Pilot Study.” 2012 April

Pillai AK, Sharma KK, Gupta YK, Bakhshi S. “Anti-Emetic Effect Of Ginger Powder Versus Placebo As An Add-On Therapy In Children And Young Adults Receiving High Emetogenic Chemotherapy.” 2011 February


Herb Name:  Ginger

Other Names:  wild ginger, root ginger

Latin Name:  Zingiber officinale

Family: Zingiberaceae

Common parts Used: root, flower

Ginger is a tube basically. It is cultivated mostly in India, China and Indonesia. It belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. It is also called root ginger in many countries.  It is used a spice in Asia and is a part of daily food.

The flower of ginger is used as a flavor. The ginger is also used in India for flavoring salads. It is used cooked as well as raw. Ginger is also pickled in vinegar. It is also used as a preservative.  In India it is mixed with tea which is considered to be antidepressant. 

Ginger is also used for medical purposes. It is considered good for respiratory disorders. It is also good against flu and cold. Ginger is used as a remedy for congestion, headache. It can be used in pregnancy for throat infections and cold. Ginger is may also reduce the blood pressure and is good for lowering cholesterol level. In different religions it is considered good for success and making relationships more strong.

Herb Name: Ginger

Others names: Sheng Jiang, Jamaica ginger

Latin name: Zingiber officinale, Roscoe

Family: Zingiberaceae

Common part used: Rhizomes, Essential oil

Description: Ginger is an herb with thick branching underground stems (rhizomes), sturdy upright stems, and pointed lance-shaped leaves. The flowers are yellow-green, with deep purple lips and yellow marking. The fruits resemble fleshy capsules.

Properties: Ginger is an herb that is used in herbal medicine to treat indigestion, blood in the urine, and nausea. This sweet aromatic herb increases perspiration, stimulates circulation, controls nausea and vomiting, improves digestion, boosts liver function, relaxes spasms, relieves pain, and helps to control coughing.

Contents: There is a range of numerous gingerols found in this plant, which cause it to have a very specific taste. The essential oil of this plant also contains monoterpenoids, diterpene lactones (e.g., galanolactone), and sesquiterpenes (ar-curcumene and a-zingiberene).

Internal use: Internally, Ginger is commonly used for nausea, motion sickness, morning sickness, colic, indigestion, abdominal chills, coughs, colds, influenza, and problems with peripheral circulation. This herb is used for frigidity and impotence. It also has some hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, cholesterol-lowering, and immunity-stimulating properties. It helps with ulcers, increases peristalsis (the muscle contractions in the digestive tract), and increases the secretion of gastric juices and bile. Ginger can also be used for chronic bronchitis. 

External use: Externally, Ginger is used for spasmodic pains, rheumatism, lumbago, sprains and menstrual cramps.

Essential oil and aromatherapy use: Ginger essential oil helps to warm and to stimulate the mind and the body. It also sharpens the memory and senses. It effectively removes the excess of catarrh and phlegm in the body. Ginger essential oil boosts digestion, and helps in fighting motion sickness and nausea. It helps to boost the circulation, and possesses an analgesic affect with arthritic and rheumatic pain. Topically, it helps to reduce sores, bruises, and carbuncles. Ginger oil has the following properties: analgesic, anti-spasmodic, antiseptic, bactericidal, emmenagogue, carminative, expectorant, laxative, febrifuge, rubefacient, stomachic, stimulant, and tonic.

Safety precautions: Ginger is contraindicated for people who suffer from inflammatory skin conditions, intestinal ulcers, or high fever. It is advised that pregnant women and people with sensitive skin do not use Ginger essential oil, as it can irritate the skin.