Scientific name: Cinchona ledgeriana Moens
Common names: Quinine, Peruvian Bark, Jesuit’s Bark, Fever Tree
Arabic names: شجر الكينيا (shajaru al keenyaa)
Rain Forest names:
Approximate number of species known: 38
Common parts used: Bark
Height: 5 to 15 m
Actions: Antimalarial, antispasmodic, astringent, antiseptic, antibacterial, bitter, reduces and stablizes heart rate, reduces fever, stimulants saliva and gastric juices, tonic
Known constituents: Usually >6.5% total alkaloids 30-60% consisting of quinine type alkaloids
The herb is obtained from an evergreen tree, reaching eighty feet, having reddish bark and leaves that grow to twenty inches. The bark is removed from six to eight-year-old trees and then dried in the sun. The annual production of cinchona bark has been estimated at about 8,000 tons per year
In an attempt to avoid the complications associated with intramuscular quinine administration, the intrarectal route was assessed. Sixty-six children aged from 2 to 10 years with Plasmodium falciparum malaria were included in the study, which took place in Niamey, Niger.
Fifty-five children were given 20 mg/kg of the diluted injectable form of Quinimax (a quinine, quinidine, cinchonine, cinchonidine association) intrarectally. A further 11 children with malaria were treated with 12.5 mg/kg of the same Quinimax solution by the intramuscular route.
All the children were treated twice a day for 3 d. Blood samples were drawn from 20 children (15 treated intrarectally and 5 intramuscularly) for a kinetic study. Both modes of administration were well tolerated.
Mean parasite clearance times were similar after intrarectal and intramuscular administration. Compared to the intramuscular route, intrarectal Quinimax bioavailability was 40%.
Barennes H, Kahiatani F, Pussard E, Clavier F, Meynard D, Njifountawouo S, Verdier F. “Intrarectal Quinimax (An Association Of Cinchona Alkaloids) For The Treatment Of Plasmodium Falsiparum Malaria In Children In Niger: Efficacy And Pharmacokinetics.” 1995 July-August. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7570885