Metabolic Control

  • The term metabolic control refers to the mechanisms a multicellular organism employs to respond to its needs in the environment to find itself
  • It occurs at the cellular level, but is manifested at the organismal level


  • Aspartate is a vitamin-like substance called an amino acid. As a dietary supplement, aspartate is combined with minerals and is available as copper aspartate, iron aspartate, magnesium aspartate, manganese aspartate, potassium aspartate, and zinc aspartate.


  • Trypsinogen is the precursor form or zymogen of trypsin, a digestive enzyme. Produced by the pancreas, it is found in pancreatic juice, along with amylase, lipase, and chymotrypsinogen. It is activated by enterokinase, which is found in the intestinal mucosa, to form trypsin.


  • Enteropeptidase is an enzyme produced by cells of the duodenum and is involved in digestion in humans and other animals. Enteropeptidase converts trypsinogen into its active form trypsin, resulting in the subsequent activation of pancreatic digestive enzymes.


  • Trypsin is a serine protease from the PA clan superfamily, found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyzes proteins. Trypsin is formed in the small intestine when its proenzyme form, the trypsinogen produced by the pancreas, is activated.


  • Elastase is an enzyme from the class of proteases that break down proteins. In particular, it is a serine protease.


  • Chymotrypsin is a digestive enzyme component of pancreatic juice acting in the duodenum, where it performs proteolysis, the breakdown of proteins and polypeptides.


  • A carboxypeptidase is a protease enzyme that hydrolyzes a peptide bond at the carboxy-terminal end of a protein or peptide. This is in contrast to a aminopeptidases, which cleave peptide bonds at the N-terminus of proteins.


  • A lipase is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats. Lipases are a subclass of the esterases. Lipases perform essential roles in digestion, transport and processing of dietary lipids in most, if not all, living organisms. Genes encoding lipases are even present in certain viruses.


  • A zymogen, also called a proenzyme, is an inactive precursor of an enzyme. A zymogen requires a biochemical change for it to become an active enzyme. The biochemical change usually occurs in Golgi bodies, where a specific part of the precursor enzyme is cleaved in order to activate it.


  • A substance which is secreted by the stomach wall and converted into the enzyme pepsin by gastric acid.


  • Induces expression of genes to deal with the hypoxic conditions


  • Deficiency in the amount of oxygen reaching the tissues.

Futile Cycle

  • A futile cycle, also known as a substrate cycle, occurs when two metabolic pathways run simultaneously in opposite directions and have no overall effect other than to dissipate energy in the form of heat.


  • Gluconeogenesis is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.

Reciprocal Regulation

  • Reciprocal regulation is intended to prevent concurrent activity in two closely parallel pathways, as represented by gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. These pathways include potential futile cycles, which would simply waste ATP if allowed to run freely.

Cori Cycle

  • The Cori cycle, named after its discoverers, Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Cori, refers to the metabolic pathway in which lactate produced by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles moves to the liver and is converted to glucose, which then returns to the muscles and is cyclically metabolized back to lactate.

Adrenal Gland

  • The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol. They are found above the kidneys. Each gland has an outer cortex which produces steroid hormones and an inner medulla.

Lipid Metabolism

  • Lipid metabolism is the synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells, involving the breakdown or storage of fats for energy and the synthesis of structural and functional lipids, such as those involved in the construction of cell membranes. In animals, these fats are obtained from food or are synthesized by the liver.

Allosteric Control

  • Allosteric control refers to a type of enzyme regulation involving the binding of a non-substrate molecule, known as the allosteric effector, at locations on the enzyme other than the active site. The name “allo” means other and “steric” refers to a position in a certain amount of space.