Other names: Lucerne?

Scientific name: Althaea officinalis L

Family: Malvaceae 

Common names: Althea, sweet weed, wymote, mortification root, mallards, schloss tea                                  

Ayurvedic names:

Chinese names:

Bangladesh names:

Arabic names:    الخطمي (al khatmi)  Arabic name: khatma , Khatmi

Rain Forest names:

Approximate number of species known: 12

Common parts used: Root, Leaf, Flower

Collection: spring  Usually when the plant is over two years old

Has more about collection and more about consitutents

Annual/Perennial: Perennial

Height: 5 feet

Actions: Demulcent, emollient, vulnerary, anticatarrhal, mucilaginous, pectoral

Known Constituents: Around 35% mucilage which contains poly saccarides,.  The mucilage can vary depending on the season

 Starch (a polymer of glucose) is used as a storage polysaccharide in plants

 tannins, pectin, aspargine

of D-galacturonic acid, L-rhamnose, D-glucuronic acid, and D-galactose i, oglio saccarides

A non-reducing oligosaccharide containing D-galacturonic acid and L-rhamnose has been described2V3, which was shown3 to be a 1,2’ :2,1’-dianhydride of n-D-galactopyranuronic acid and /3-r.-rhamnopyranose. According to our knowledge, a non-reducing oligosaccharide containing D-galacturonic acid, r-rhamnose, and D-glucuronic acid has not been described hitherto. 

Seeds: n-hexacos-2-enyl-1,5-olide (altheahexacosanyl lactone), 2β-hydroxycalamene (altheacalamene) and 5,6-dihydroxycoumarin-5-dodecanoate-6β-D-glucopyranoside (altheacoumarin glucoside), along with the known phytoconstituents lauric acid, β-sitosterol and lanosterol.

: Two species of the genus Althea (Malvaceae) were grown in Iraq, Althaea officinalis and Althaea rosea. Althaea officinalis contained pectins 11% , starch 25-35% , mono-, and di-saccharide, saccharose 10% , mucilage 5%, flavonoids (Hypolaetin-8-glucoside, isoquercitrin, kaempferol, caffeic, pcoumaric acid), coumarins, scopoletin, phytosterols, tannins, asparagine and many amino acids.

Many compounds were extracted from different parts of Althaea officinalis, these included pectins 11%, starch 25-35%, mono-,and di-saccharide saccharose 10%, uucilage 5%, flavonoids (Hypolaetin-8-glucoside, Ali Esmail Al-Snafi et al /Int.J.PharmTech Res.2013,5(3) 1379 isoquercitrin, kaempferol, caffeic, pcoumaric acid), coumarins, scopoletin, phytosterols, tannins, asparagine and many amino acids(4-10).  – copy and paste pargarph

Total ash: not more than 6% in the peeled root and not more than 8% in the unpeeled root , acid-insoluble ash : not more than 3% in the peeled root , water-soluble extractive : not less than 22% ,loss on drying : not more than 12% , and swelling index : not less than 10. Chemical constituents : Many compounds were extracted from different parts of the plants , these included pectins 11% , starch 25- 35%, mono-, di-saccharide saccharose 10%, mucilage 5%, flavonoids : hypolaetin-8-glucoside, isoquercitrin, kaempferol, caffeic, pcoumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicylic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic aicd, vanillic acid , coumarins , scopoletin, phytosterols , tannins , asparagine and amino acids(4-10). Mucilage polysaccharidescontents reached 5-11.6 % (depending on vegetative period). They were consisted of the mixture of colloidally soluble polysaccharides, particularly of acid arabinanogalactans, galacturonic rhamnans, arabans and glucans acidic heteropolysaccharide (with a MW ca 30 000) containing D-galactose, Lrhamnose, D-glucuronic acid and D-galacturonic acid in the molar ratios 1.2:1.0:1.0:1.0, L-arabinans and D- glucans . Dominant neutral mucilage component is (1-6)-α-D-glucan. By partial acid hydrolysis Althaea mucilage O, the following oligosaccharides were obtained: O-α-(D-galactopyranosyluronic acid)-(1-2)-Lrhamnopyranose, O-β-(D-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-(1-3)-O-α-(D-galactopyrano syluronic acid)-(1-2)-Lrhamnopyranose and hexasaccharide, nonasaccharide, dodecasaccharide composed of a repeating unit having the structure of the trisaccharide through position 4 of the D-galacturonic acid residue(8,15-21) . Valiei et al extracted many compounds from extracts of flower and root of Althaea officinalis , these included : undecyne, nonanoic acid methyl ester (nonanoic acid), phenol, 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl, tetradecanoic acid methyl ester (tetradecanoic acid), pentadecanoic acid methyl ester (pentadecanoic acid), 9- hexadecenoic acid methyl ester(9-hexadecenoic acid), hexadecanoic acid methyl ester ( hexadecanoic acid) , cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl methyl ester (cyclopropaneoctanoic acid, 2-hexyl), heptadecanoic acid methyl ester (heptadecanoic acid), octadecyne-5, 7,10-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (7,10-octadecadienoic acid), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid(ω-6) methyl ester (9,12-octadecadienoic acid), 8,11-octadacadienoic acid, Ali Esmail Al-Snafi et al /Int.J.PharmTech Res.2013,5(3) 1380 methyl ester(8,11-octadacadienoic acid), 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (ω-3) methyl ester (9,12,15- octadecatrienoic acid), octadecanoic acid methyl ester (octadecanoic acid), naphthalene, decahydro-2,6- dimethyl , 10-nonadecenoic acid methyl ester (10-nonadecenoic acid), cyclopropaneoctanoic acid, 2-octyl, methyl ester (cyclopropaneoctanoic acid,2-octyl), dihydroionone, 3-heptadecen-5-yne, heneicosane, methyl 2- octylcyclopropene-1-heptanoate, eicosanoic acid, methyl ester (eicosanoic acid) , tetracosan, heneicosanoic acid methyl ester (heneicosanoic acid), pentacosane, docosanoic acid methyl ester (docosanoic acid), tricosane, tricosanoic acid methyl ester (tricosanoic acid), heptacosane, tetracosanoic acid methyl ester (tetracosanoic acid), octacosane, squalene, nonacosane , γ-sitosterol(22) . – all ocpy and pasted

Constituents Explained:


Grows in waste places.  Some times grows near black cohosh.  Hummingbirds often like the nectar from the garden.  Often planted in half sun half shade, and it appreciates som emoistureiin the soil which will tend ot crate more roots with mucigalious qualities.  The leaves are soft. When it grows shady the flowers come later than if it’s grown in the sun. The flowrs ar enormally white. When the flowers die it leaves seeds that have been compared to a wheel of cheese.

The roots are often collected when 3-4 years old and can some times resemble the shape of a carrot.

A densely velvety, gray-white perennial plant over 5 feet tall, with erect leafy stems and a thick taproot. The lower, 5-lobed, leaves are long-stalked and lobed, heart-shaped, upper ones folded like a fan. The pale pink (or mauvish) or white flowers grow on small clusters in leaf axils of upper leaves; they have velvety sepals, appear at the height of summer. Fruits are brown-green, downy nutlets. Grown in full sun. Not heat tolerant.

seeds have short (2-3 months) time maturation they germinate (over 70 per cent during the first year after harvest). The seeds keep vitality up to 5 years – re word

The flowers are terminal and axillary, with short peduncles, each bearing one, two, or three flowers. The petals are pale pink, reddish pink, and rarely, white, in color.

Traditional Use:

re located mainly in Europe, with the exception of the Scandinavian countries, and the Near East (western and north Asia). They are cultivated mainly in Germany, France, Belgium, Spain, Italy, Hungary, and Russia, and have been introduced in North and South America – reo wor apragraph 

A. officinalis is widely used in the irritation of oral, pharyngeal mucosa and associated dry cough, mild gastritis, skin burns and for insect bites. It is also used in catarrh of the mouth, throat, gastrointestinal tract and urinary tract, as well as for inflammation, ulcers, abscesses, burns, constipation and diarrhea(1).  – was copy and pasteds

Other species than Althea? Officinalis have been used in parts of the Middle East.

A soothing and mucuoligis? Herb that has a similar thickness when extracted in liquid to slipper elm.  It is used to soothe and protect mucous membranes, which makes it incredibly effective as a toner for the kidneys and bladder, digestive system, and in chronic bronchitis in the chest.

The name comes from the fact it has grown in the marsh’s and is part of the mallow family.  

The leaves are some times used in tea.  The leaves can be used as a thickener The flower is used like the rest of the plant to  to soothe digestive tract. The root can be chopped fresh and extracted, or soaked over night and then extracted.  The consisytency of the root can feel gluey.

It’s popular use in confectionary has seen it be heavily picked 

Using plants from the Malvaceae family for herbal therapy is very common in the Middle East, of these plants are Althaea officinalis and Althaea rosea. Althaea officinalis is native to Asia, Europe and United States of America. It is widely used traditionally for the treatment of the irritation of oral, pharyngeal mucosa and associated dry cough, mild gastritis, skin burns and for insect bites. It is also used in catarrh of the mouth and throat, gastrointestinal tract and urinary tract complains, as well as for inflammation, ulcers, abscesses, burns, constipation and diarrhea(1)  – copy and paste paragraph needs complete re wording

For urinary tract problems the leaf is most commonly employed.  The leaf is also used for the lungs. The flower is often used for the skin for conditions including ulcers and varicose veins..

The root is used for digestive problems including inflammation.  Has been used as a douche for irritation of the vagina, and as an eye wash.1

It has been suggested to be used for gastric ulcer.

The German E Commission monographs denotes the following uses for Marshmallow; a) irritation of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa and associated dry cough, and b) mild inflammation of the gastric mucosa. 20

Marshmallow as a candy

Masahmallow became popular when the French started mixing it with egg whites and sugar in the 1800’s.    Modern Marshmallwousually doesn’t contain Marshmallow anymore and contains 60% corn syrup, 30% sugar, and 1% to 2% gelatin.  Sometiomes it has acids and flavours added

Clinical Studies:

The complex extract and the polysaccharide isolated from the roots of marsh mallow were tested for antitussive activity in unanaesthetized cats of both sexes. Cough was elicited by mechanical stimulation of laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial mucous area of the respiratory system with a Nylon fibre (diameter 0.35 mm). Cough was evaluated on the basis of the changes in lateral tracheal pressure. The polysaccharide and the complex extract were administered p.o. in a dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w., respectively. The efficiency of the mentioned compounds was compared with the cough-suppressing effect of drugs belonging to the non-narcotic antitussics. The results of the experiments showed that administration of the polysaccharide led to a statistically significant decrease of the number of cough efforts both from laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial areas of the the respiratory system. The polysaccharide in a dose of 50 mg/kg b.w. was as effective in inhibition of the cough reflex as Sirupus Althaeae in a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.w. and more effective than prenoxdiazine in a dose of 30 mg/kg b.w. However, the cough-suppressing effect of the polysaccharide was lower than that of dropropizine. The extract was less effective than the polysaccharide.

AE (1, 10 μg/mL) had stimulating effect on cell viability and proliferation of epithelial KB cells. RPS (1, 10 μg/mL) stimulated cell vitality of epithelial cells significantly without triggering the cells into higher proliferation status. Neither AE nor RPS had any effect on fibroblasts. FITC-labeled RPS was shown to be internalised into epithelial cells, but not into fibroblasts. FITC-RPS was shown to form bioadhesive layers on the cell surface of dermal fibroblasts. Microarray analysis indicated an up-regulation of genes related to cell adhesion proteins, growth regulators, extracellular matrix, cytokine release and apoptosis.


Aqueous extracts and polysaccharides from the roots of A. officinalis are effective stimulators of cell physiology of epithelial cells which can prove the traditional use of Marshmallow preparations for treatment of irritated mucous membranes within tissue regeneration.

Lthea offincnalis and althea rosea

The previous studies showed that Althaea officinalis possessed antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, demulcent, soothing, antittusive and many other pharmacological effects. Althaea rosea contained high molecular weight acidic polysaccharides (1.3 to 1.6 million Dalton) known as mucilages which found in flowers and leaves. These mucilages were composed of glucoronic acid, galacturonic acid, rhamnose and galactose. It also contained proteins, alkaloids flavonoids and minerals. It possessed many pharmacological effects including antimicrobial, cardiovascular, prevention of urolithiasis, antiestrogenic, cytotoxic and immunomodulating effects. The aim of this review is to highlight the chemical constituents and the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Althaea species grown in Iraq.

All needs to be re worded:

Aqueous extracts of the roots stimulated phagocytosis, and the release of oxygen radicals and leukotrienes from human neutrophils in vitro. The aqueous extract also induced the release of cytokines, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor from human monocytes in vitro, thereby exhibiting anti-inflammatory and immune stimulant activity(26). A polysaccharide fraction (500mg/ml) isolated from a root extract had anticomplement activity in human serum in vitro(27). Marshmallow mucilage polysaccharides administered intraperitoneally to mice at a dose of 10 mg/kg produced a 2.2-fold increase in phagocytic activity of macrophages in the carbon-clearance test (24). However, with a dry 80% ethanolic extract administered orally (100 mg/kg b.w.), no inhibition of carrageenan induced rat paw oedema has been proved(29) . Hypolaetin 8-glucoside has been tested for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-ulcer activity in rats. This flavonoid (30, 60 and 90 mg/kg i.p.) was more potent than phenylbutazone (30, 60 and 90 mg/kg i.p.) in suppressing the acute phase of adjuvant carrageenan-induced inflammation but had less effect in the prolonged inflammatory phase. In contrast to phenylbutazone, it did not cause gastric erosions. Analgesic activity of hypolaetin 8-glucosid has been found to be lower than the one of phenylbutazone . Hypolaetin 8-glucoside was also more potent than troxerutin (both at the doses of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg s.c.) in inhibiting histamineinduced capillary permeability in rats(18) . An ointment containing an aqueous marshmallow root extract (20%) applied topically to the external ear of rabbits reduced irritation induced by UV irradiation or by tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. The ointment has been compared to pure dexamethasone 0.05% ointment and a combined marshmallow and dexamethasone product. Ali Esmail Al-Snafi et al /Int.J.PharmTech Res.2013,5(3) 1381 The anti-inflammatory effect of marshmallow ointment was lower than that of a dexamethasone ointment. The combined product had higher anti-inflammatory effect than the ointments with the individual ingredients(18). Scopoletin exert anti-inflammatory activity in croton oil induced mouse ear edema(30). Immunomodulatory effects : Althaea-mucilage O, an acidic polysaccharide isolated from marshmallow root, has been demonstrated to have an anti-complement activity on normal human serum in concentrations of 100 – 1000 ug/ml(27). An extract (extraction medium 45 % 1,3-butylene glycol solution) of marshmallow root was found to inhibit intracellular calcium mobilisation in normal human melanocytes activated by endothelin-1, and to strongly inhibit endothelin-1-induced proliferation of melanocytes. The extract can diminish the physiological effect of endothelin-1 on normal human melanocytes following UVB irradiation(18). Scopoletin produced dual action on tumoral lymphocytes exhibiting both a cytostatic and a cytotoxic effect on the cell , and also exert apoptosis. Proliferation of normal T lymphocytes was found due to the interaction with kinase C (PKC) protein. It indicates that scopoletin may be a potential anti-tumoral compound (30). Demulcent and soothing : The demulcent effects of Radix Althaeae are due to its high content of polysaccharide hydrocolloids, which form a protective coating on the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, soothing local irritation and inflammation(1). However, weak inhibition (17%) of mucociliary transport in isolated, ciliated epithelium of the frog oesophagus was demonstrated after treatment of the isolated tissues with 200 ml of an aqueous root macerate (6.4 g/140 ml)(31). Polysaccharides from marshmallow root showed moderate adhesion to epithelial tissue of porcine buccal membranes (18) . Antittusive effects : Marshmallow root extract and isolated mucilage polysaccharide were tested for antitussive activity in unanaesthetised cats of both sexes at oral doses of 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight, in a cough induced by mechanical stimulation, in acomparison with the cough-suppressing effects of Althaea syrup (1000 mg/kg), prenoxdiazine (30 mg/kg), dropropizine (100 mg/kg) and codeine (10 mg/kg). Both the extract and isolated polysaccharide significantly reduced the intensity and the number of cough efforts from laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial areas. The root extract was less effective than the isolated polysaccharide. The antitussive activity was found to be lower than that of codeine, but higher than those of prenoxdiazine and dropropizine(18,32). Polysaccharides of Marshmallow exhibited statistically significant cough-suppressing activity, which was noticeably higher than that of the non-narcotic drug used in clinical practice to treat coughing. By testing many plants, the most expressive antitussive activity was observed with the polysaccharide from marshmallow, containing the highest proportion of the uronic acid constituent(33). In a double blind clinical study, Rouhi and Ganji used Althaea officinalis in patients with hypertension who had been developed cough during taking of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.The patients received 40mg of Althaea officinalis three times daily as 20 drops for four weeks . The Mean scores of the severity of the cough in the group which have been treated by Althaea officinalis had a significant change from the score of 2/66+0.958 (to) 1/23+1.006. Eight patient in the Althaea officinalis group showed almost complete cough abolition(34). Other pharmacological effects : Polysaccharide from the root of A. officinalis (Althaeamucilage-O) administered intraperitoneally to nondiabetic mice significantly reduced blood glucose(35). Scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxy coumarin) is therapeutically evaluated in rats for hyperthyroidism, lipid peroxidation and hyperglycemia. Scopoletin (1.00 mg/kg, p.o.) administered daily for 7 days decreased the Ali Esmail Al-Snafi et al /Int.J.PharmTech Res.2013,5(3) 1382 levels of serum thyroid hormones and glucose as well as hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity. Scopoletin also mimic hepatic lipid peroxidation and promote antioxidants activity, superoxide dismutase and catalase. It indicated that scopoletin produce anti-thyroid activity and hyperglycemia without hepatotoxicity(36). Ethanol/water f(1:1) extract of the dried entire plant, at a concentration of 5.0 mcg/ml, produced weak activity vs superoxide anion when estimated by the neotetrazolium method(37). The extract of A. officinalis exhibited strong antioxidant activity in different antioxidant tests(38). Their antioxidant activity is accounted for approximately 69% of the activity of the reference compound alpha-tocopherol(40). Sadighara et al examined three colors of petals of Althaea officinalis flowers, i.e., pink, reddish pink, and white were examined for total antioxidant activity . The results showed that the reddish pink flowers of A. officinalis have more antioxidant activity and the power of antioxidant activity was reddish pink > pink > white(40).

The rhamnogalacturonan, isolated from the roots of medicinal plant Althaea officinalis L., showed various biological effects on the citric acid-induced cough reflex and reactivity of airways smooth muscle in vitro and in vivo conditions. It possessed dose-dependent cough suppression effect comparable with opioid agonist codeine. However, reactivity of the airways smooth muscle, measured in vitro as well as in vivo conditions was not significantly affected by rhamnogalacturonan and thus bronchodilatory activity did not participate in the cough suppression effect of polysaccharide tested. Moreover, the cough suppression effect of the polymer was not significantly modified by pretreatment of K+ATP ion channels with selective antagonist and therefore activation of this type of ion channels is not involved in the mechanism of rhamnogalacturonan cough suppressive ability. On the contrary, pretreatment of animals with selective 5-HT2 receptors antagonist significantly decreased rhamnogalacturonan antitussive efficacy.

An acidic heteropolysaccharide isolated from the mucilage of the roots of the marsh mallow (Althaea officinalis L., var. Rhobusta) via its insoluble barium salt contained d-galactose, l-rhamnose, d-glucuronic acid, and d-galacturonic acid in the molar ratios 1.2:1.0:1.0:1.0. It was homogenous on free-boundary electrophoresis and in the anlytical ultracentrifuge, and it had Mw = 26,700, Mn= 23,900. Partial acid hydrolysis and analyses of the methylated and the methylated, carboxyl-reduced polysaccharide indicated that the polymer backbone is composed of (1→4)-linked d-galactopyranuronic acid and (1→2)-linked l-rhamnopyranose units in the ratio of 1:1. Each d-galacturonic unit carries a single β-d-glucopyranuronic residue linked to C-3, and each l-rhamnopyranose unit carries d-galactopyranose residues, mainly as non-reducing terminals linked to C-4. A smal number of presumably short chains of (1→4)-linked d-galactopyranose units are also involved in branching.

The mechanical, thermal, chemical, crystallographic and morphological properties of althaea fibres, extracted from Althaea officinalis L., was examined for the first time in this study. A. officinalis L. was obtained from Mordoğan, Izmir (Turkey). After extraction process, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose contents of althaea fibres were identified. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were utilized for surface functional groups of althaea fibres. By using X-ray diffraction analysis, CI value for althaea fibre is obtained to be 68%. The images of scanning electron microscopy were taken for observation of morphology of althaea fibres. The tensile modulus and tensile strength values of althaea fibre were obtained by single fibre tensile tests as 415.2 MPa and 65.4 GPa, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that thermal degradation of the fibre begins at approximately 220 °C. Besides, by pulling out the althea fibre from the embedded high density polyethylene, interfacial shear strength value was determined to be 8.16 MPa. The results suggest that the althaea fibre can be used in composite applications as a natural reinforcement material.

The therapy of pathological type of cough presents serious medical problem.The aim of experiments was to investigate polysaccacharide influence on experimentally induced cough.The purified and/or modified polysaccharides from the flowers and plants, characterized by chemical composition and molecular properties were subjected to tests for antitussive activity on cough, induced mechanically in conscious cats of both sexes.The results revealed that the tested polysaccharides exhibited statistically significant cough-suppressing activity, which was noticeably higher than that of the non-narcotic drug used in clinical practice to treat coughing. The most expressive antitussive activity was observed with the polysaccharide from marsh mallow, containing the highest proportion of the uronic acid constituent. Negative influence of the tested compounds on expectoration was negligible when compared to that of codeine.Antitussive activity of various plant polysaccharides was confirmed. These results allow ranging them among prospective antitussive agents (Tab. 2, Fig. 6, Ref. 15) Full Text (Free, PDF)

Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50 % inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 μg/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time.

A representative mucous polysaccharide, named Althaea-mucilage O, has been isolated from the roots of Althaea officinalis L. It was homogeneous on glass-fiber paper electrophoresis and by ultracentrifugal analysis, and its water solution gave the high intrinsic viscosity value of 50.0. It was composed of L-rhamnose : D-galactose : D-galacturonic acid : D-glucuronic acid in the molar ratio of 3 : 2 : 3 : 3, and molecular weight of its ammonium salt was estimated to be 34000. The O-acetyl groups in it were identified and the content was 0.7%. The mucilage has been subjected to the reduction of carboxyl groups, and the results of methylation analysis of the original and the carboxyl-reduced polysaccharides revealed the structural features of the backbone and side chains in the mucilage

What are the marshmallow ppolyscarides built from?

A water-soluble 4-0-methyl-D-glucurono-D-xylan of Mn = 21.563 has been isolated from the leaves of A. officinalis L., var. Rhobusta. On the basis of the results of methylation analysis and ,3C NMR spectral data it was concluded that the polysaccharide was built of (1 -• 4)-linked /?-D-xylopyranosyl residues, Ä 70 % being unsubstituted, « 5 % carrying a single substitution at 0-2 and/or 0-3, and «11% being doubly branched at 0-2 and 0-3. 4-O-Methyl-D-glucuronic acid was attached to 0-2 as a single terminal unit (1 unit per 7 units of xylose).

Mucous polysaccharides from A. officinalis L. and other related genera and species were studied by Tomoda et al. [1—4]. They described beside glucans and pectic substances acidic heteropolysaccharides composed of L-rhamnose, D- -galactose, D-glucuronic acid, and D-galacturonic acid. We studied the mucilageneous material isolated from A. officinalis L., var. Rhobusta, systematically in order to broaden our knowledge of the chemical structures of its individual polysaccharide components and throw light on the possible relationship between structure and therapeutic effects. In our previous reports we described a highly-branched L-arabinan [5], glucans [6], and an acidic Chem. Papers 43 (5) 705 713(1989) 705 A. KARDOSOVÁ, P. CAPEK, J. ROSÍK heteropolysaccharide [7] isolated from the roots, and a glucan [8], isolated from the leaves of this plant. The present work was undertaken to separate and characterize a further component of the mucilage isolated from the leaves, an acidic polysaccharide. 

In the framework of a detailed investigation of mucilages of the roots and leaves of A. officinalis L., var. Rhobusta (a hybrid of A. officinalis L. and A. armeniaca TEN, improved and cultivated in Czechoslovakia), from the leaves of the plant we have so far isolated and structurally characterized the dominant component of the mucilage, a glucan. Now, we have undertaken structural studies of an acidic carbohydrate polymer, the presence of which in the crude mucilage was indicative by the uronic acid content (

The crude mucilage was isolated from dry leaves by extraction with cold water, precipitation of the extract with ethanol, and subsequent dialysis of the precipitate against distilled water to remove the accompanying low-molecular glucans. The sugar composition is presented in Table 1 and the amino acid composition of the protein moiety of the mucilage is listed in Table 2. After 708 Chem. Papers 43 (5) 705 713(1989) 4-0-METHYL-D-GLUCURONO-D-XYLAN Table 2 Amino acid composition of the crude mucilage from the leaves of the marsh mallow (Althaea officinalis L., var. Rhobusta) Amino acid Lysine Histidine Arginine Aspartic acid Threonine Serine Glutamic acid Proline Glycine Alanine Valine Methionine Isoleucine Leucine Tyrosine Phenylalanine jc/mole % 6.00 1.96 3.61 9.95 6.82 7.73 9.68 7.10 10.56 9.27 8.56 1.50 3.97 7.07 2.71 3.51 

On the basis of the results mentioned above it can be concluded that the 4-O-methyl-D-glucurono-D-xylan is built of (1 -»4)-linked /J-D-xylopyranosyl residues, « 70 % being unsubstituted, « 5 % carrying a single substitution at 0-2 and/or 0-3, and « 11 % being doubly branched at 0-2 and 0-3. The 4-0- -methyl-D-glucopyranuronosyl units are attached to 0-2 as single terminal residues

Under results talks about the maount of mucilage

Optimal temperatues to extract poly saccarids from  marsh mallow

Response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) based on five levels was employed to model and optimize four experimental operating conditions of extraction temperature (10–90 °C) and time (6–30 h), particle size (6–24 mm) and water to solid (W/S, 10–50) ratio, obtaining polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis roots with high yield and antioxidant activity. For each response, a second-order polynomial model with high R2 values (>0.966) was developed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the most significant (P < 0.05) extraction conditions that affect the yield and antioxidant activity of extracted polysaccharides were the main effect of extraction temperature and the interaction effect of the particle size and W/S ratio. The optimum conditions to maximize yield (10.80%) and antioxidant activity (84.09%) for polysaccharides extraction from A. officinalis roots were extraction temperature 60.90 °C, extraction time 12.01 h, particle size 12.0 mm and W/S ratio of 40.0. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with those predicted, indicating the models suitability for optimizing the polysaccharides extraction conditions.

Marshmallow against E Coli  P aeruginosa and S aurea

Althea officinalis prevented the development of the cellular injuries that followed cigarette smoke and it not only prevented cigarette induced proliferative effects on the squamous cells of epithelial layer and reduced the Reid index significantly, but also increased the number of goblet cells and promoted MCT. This latter effect was inferred from the observed reduction of glycoprotein accumulation in the treated group. So, we may suggest the use of Althea officinalis extract to prevent or alleviate the toxic effects of cigarette smoke in the smokers.

The extract of A. officinalis exhibited strong antioxidant activity in different antioxidant tests (Elmastas et al., 2004). Their antioxidant activity is accounted for approximately 69% of the activity of the reference compound alpha-tocopherol (

From the roots of the medicinal plant Althaea officinalis L., three D-glucans were isolated by gel chromatography which differed in molecular weights. The results of methylation analyses and 13C NMR measurements indicated predominantly linear character of the polysaccharide chains composed of α-D-glucopyranose units linked by 1 → 6 glycosidic bonds almost exclusively. The polymers had essentially the same structural features as D-glucan isolated from the leaves of this plant.

outcomes showed both extracts of Althaea officinalis and Matricaria recutita had bactericide and bacteriostatic effects on all cases

Marshmallow and gastric ulcer

A. officinalisflower extract demonstrated a protectionagainst ethanol-induced gastric ulcer

Significant anti-inflammatory (acute and chronic inflammation) and antiulcerogenic activities were observed at all used doses (50, 100, and 250 mg/kg body).

he aqueous extract of Althaea officinalis flower demonstrated potential benefits in lipemia, inflammation, gastric ulcer with no visible adverse effect.