Other names: English walnut, caucasion walnut, persian walnut
Scientific name: Juglans regia
Common names: Walnut
Ayurvedic names: akshota, akshoda, akshotak, parvatiya
Chinese names: Hu tao
Bangladesh names: Aakhrot, Akot, Aakrot
Arabic names: الجوز ( al jawz)
Rain Forest names:
Approximate number of species known:
Common parts used: leaf, bark, nut
Collection: Blooming time is summer
Height: upto 80 feet
Actions: Astringent, tonic, nutritive, demulcent, laxative (bark), stomachic. Juglone is believed to have an antifungal property; the hulls and leaves are highly astringent and contain tannin as well as juglandin, a bitter principle
Known Constituents: Juglone, isojuglone, essential oil, inositol, phytin, phytosterols, oxidase, vitamins A, B, C, and E, and ellagic, laric, myristic, arachic, linoleic, linolenic, isolinolenic, and oleic acids flavonoids, phenolic acids and related polyphenols
It has long been recognized that the principal chemical responsible for walnut allelopathy is a phenolic compound called juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4- naphthoquinone) https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1004301309997
The headspace was found to be rich in the monoterpenes α-pinene (39.5%), sabinene (34.7%) and β-pinene (6.3%). More than 20 minor constituents, mainly aromatic hydrocarbons, were also identified
Black walnut is also toxic to plants around it
Plants adversely affected by being grown near black walnut trees exhibit symptoms such as foliar yellowing, wilting, and eventually death. The causal agent is a chemical called “juglone” (5 hydroxy-1,4- napthoquinone), which occurs naturally in all parts of the black walnut. Juglone has experimentally been shown to be a respiration inhibitor which deprives sensitive plants of needed energy for metabolic activity.
The largest concentrations of juglone and hydrojuglone (converted to juglone by sensitive plants) occur in the walnut’s buds, nut hulls, and roots. However, leaves and stems do contain a smaller quantity. Juglone is only poorly soluble in water and thus does not move very far in the soil. Since small amounts of juglone are released by live roots, particularly juglone-sensitive plants may show toxicity symptoms anywhere within the area of root growth of a black walnut tree. However, greater quantities of juglone are generally present in the area immediately under the canopy of a black walnut tree, due to greater root density and the accumulation of juglone from decaying leaves and nut hulls. This distribution of juglone means that some sensitive plants may tolerate the amount of juglone present in the soil near a black walnut tree, but may not survive directly under its canopy. Alternatively, highly sensitive plants may not tolerate even the small concentration of juglone beyond the canopy spread. Because decaying roots still release juglone, toxicity can persist for some years after a tree is removed. http://www.mygardengeek.com/docs/Tips/Trees%20Shrubs%20Vines/Black%20Walnut%20Toxicity-Purdue.pdf
Plants Observed to Be Sensitive to Juglone Vegetables: asparagus, cabbage, eggplant, pepper, potato, rhubarb, tomato. Fruits: apple, blackberry, blueberry, pear. Landscape plants: black alder; azalea; basswood; white birch; ornamental cherries; red chokeberry; crabapple; hackberry; Amur honeysuckle; hydrangea; Japanese larch; lespedeza; lilac; saucer magnolia; silver maple; mountain laurel; pear; loblolly pine; mugo pine; red pine; scotch pine; white pine; potentilla; privet; rhododendron; Norway spruce; viburnum (few); yew. Flowers and herbaceous plants: autumn crocus (Colchichum); blue wild indigo (Baptisia); chrysanthemum (some); columbine; hydrangea; lily; narcissus (some); peony (some); petunia; tobacco. Field crops: alfalfa; crimson clover; tobacco. Plants Observed to Be Tolerant to Juglone Vegetables: lima bean; snap bean; beet; carrot; corn; melon; onion; parsnip; squash. Fruits: black raspberry, cherry. Landscape plants: arborvitae; autumn olive; red cedar; catalpa; clematis; crabapple; daphne; elm; euonymous; forsythia; hawthorn; hemlock; hickory; honeysuckle; junipers; black locust; Japanese maple; maple (most); oak; pachysandra; pawpaw; persimmon; redbud; rose of sharon; wild rose; sycamore; viburnum (most); Virginia creeper. Flowers and herbaceous plants: astilbe; bee balm; begonia; bellflower; bergamot; bloodroot; Kentucky bluegrass; Spanish bluebell; Virginia bluebell; bugleweed; chrysanthemum (some); coral bells; cranesbill; crocus; Shasta daisy; daylily; Dutchman’s breeches; ferns; wild ginger; glory-of-the-snow; grape-hyacinth; grasses (most); orange hawkweed; herb Robert; hollyhock; hosta (many); hyacinth; Siberian iris; Jack-in-thepulpit; Jacob’s ladder; Jerusalem artichoke; lamb’s-ear; leopard’s-bane; lungwort; mayapple; merrybells; morning glory; narcissus (some); pansy; peony (some); phlox; poison ivy; pot marigold; polyanthus primrose; snowdrop; Solomon’s-seal; spiderwort; spring beauty; Siberian squill; stonecrop; sundrop; sweet Cicely; sweet woodruff; trillium; tulip; violet; Virginia waterleaf; winter aconite; zinnia.
Plants Observed Growing Under or Near Black Walnut* Trees • Japanese Maples, Acer palmatum and its cultivars • Southern Catalpa, Catalpa bignonioides • Eastern Redbud, Cercis canadensis • Canadian Hemlock, Tsuga canadensis Vines and Shrubs • Clematis ‘Red Cardinal’ • February Daphne, Daphne mezereum • Euonymus species • Weeping Forsythia, Forsythia suspensa • Rose of Sharon, Hibiscus syriacus • Tartarian Honeysuckle, Lonicera tatarica, and most other Lonicera species • Virginia Creeper, Parthenocissus quinquefolia • ** Pinxterbloom, Rhododendron periclymenoides • **’Gibraltar’ and ‘Balzac’, Rhododendron Exbury hybrids • Multiflora Rose, Rosa multiflora • Black Raspberry, Rubus occidentalis • Arborvitaes, Thuja species • ** Koreanspice Viburnum, Viburnum carlesii, and most other Viburnum species Annuals • Pot-marigold, Calendula officinalis ‘Nonstop’ • Begonia, fibrous cultivars • Morning Glory, Ipomoea ‘Heavenly Blue’ • Pansy Viola • Zinnia species 2 Vegetables • Squashes, Melons, Beans, Carrots, Corn Fruit Trees • Peach, Nectarine, Cherry, Plum • Prunus species Pear-Pyrus species Herbaceous Perennials • Bugleweed, Ajuga reptans • Hollyhock, Alcea rosea • American Wood Anemone, Anemone quinquefolia • Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Arisaema triphyllum • European Wild Ginger, Asarum europaeum • Astilbe species • Bellflower, Campanula latifolia • **Chrysanthemum species (some) • Glory-of-the-Snow, Chionodoxa luciliae • Spring Beauty, Claytonia virginica • Crocus species • Dutchman’s Breeches, Dicentra cucullaria • Leopard’s-Bane, Doronicum species • Crested Wood Fern, Dryopteris cristata • Spanish Bluebell, Endymion hispanicus • Winter Aconite, Eranthis hyemalis • Snowdrop, Galanthus nivalis • Sweet Woodruff, Galium odoratum • Herb Robert, Geranium robertianum • Cranesbill, Geranium sanguineum • Grasses (most) Gramineae family • Jerusalem Artichoke, Helianthus tuberosus • Common Daylily, Hemerocallis ‘Pluie de Feu’ • Coral Bells, Heuchera x brizoides • Orange Hawkweed, Hieracium aurantiacum • Plantain-lily, Hosta fortunei ‘Glauca’ • Hosta lancifolia • Hosta marginata • Hosta undulata ‘Variegata’ • Common Hyacinth, Hyacinthus Orientalis ‘City of Haarlem’ • Virginia Waterleaf, Hydrophyllum virginianum • Siberian Iris, Iris sibirica • Balm, Monarda didyma • Wild Bergamot, M. fistulosa • Grape Hyacinth, Muscari botryoides 3 • Sweet Cicely, Myrrhis odorata ‘Yellow Cheerfulness,’ ‘Geranium,’ ‘Tete a Tete,’ ‘Sundial,’ and ‘February Gold’ • Sundrops, Oenothera fruticosa • Senstitive Fern, Onoclea sensibilis • Cinnamon Fern, Osmunda cinnamomea • Peony, **Paeonia species (some) • Summer Phlox, Phlox paniculata • Mayapple, Podophyllum peltatum • Jacob’s-Ladder, Polemonium reptans • Great Solomon’s-Seal, Polygonatum commutatum • Polyanthus Primrose, Primula x polyantha • Lungwort, Pulmonaria species • Bloodroot, Sanguinaria canadensis • Siberian Squill, Scilla sibirica • Goldmoss Stonecrop, Sedum acre • Showy Sedum, Sedum spectabile • Lamb’s-Ear, Stachys byzantina • Spiderwort, Tradescantia virginiana • Nodding Trillium, Trillium cernuum • White Wake-Robin, Trillium grandiflorum • Tulipa Darwin ‘White Valcano’ and ‘Cum Laude,’ Parrot ‘Blue Parrot,’ Greigii ‘Toronto’ • Big Merrybells, Uvularia grandiflora • Canada Violet, Viola canadensis • Horned Violet, Viola cornuta • Woolly Blue Violet, Viola sororia *These are based upon observations and not from clinical tests. **Cultivars of some species may do poorly. Plants That Do Not Grow Within 50 Feet of Drip Line of Black Walnut Herbaceous Perennials • Colorado Columbine, Aquilegia caerulea • Wild Columbine, Aquilegia canadensis • Asparagus, Asparagus offinalis • *Chrysanthemum Chrysanthumum species (some) • Baptisia australis • Hydrangea species • Lilies, Lilium species (particularly the Asian hybrids) • Alfalfa, Medicago sativa • Buttercup, Narcissus ‘John Evelyn,’ ‘Unsurpassable’ ‘King Alfred’ and ‘Ice Follies’ • Peonies, *Paeonia species (some) • Rhubarb, Rheum rhabarbarum 4 Trees • Silver Maple, Acer saccharinum • European Alder, Alnus glutinosa • White Birches, Betula species • Northern Hackberry, Celtis occidentalis • Apples and Crabapples, Malus species • Norway Spruce, Picea abies • Mugo Pine, Pinus mugo • Red Pine, Pinus resinosa • Eastern White Pine, Pinus strobus • Basswood, Tilia heterophylla Shrubs • Red Chokeberry, Aronia arbutifolia • Hydrangea species • Mountain Laurels, Kalmia species • Privet, Ligustrum species • Amur Honeysuckle, Lonicera maackii • Brush Cinquefoil, Potentilla species • Rhododendrons and Azaleas, **Rhododendron species (most) • Blackberry, Rubus allegheniensis • Lilacs, Syringa species and cultivars • Yew, Taxus species • Blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum • *Viburnum plicatum tomentosum ‘Mariesii’ Annuals and Vegetables Transplants • Cabbage, Brassica oleracea capitata • Peppers, Capsicum species (some) • Tomatoes, Lycopersicon esculentum • Flowering Tobacco, Nicotiana alata • Petunia species and cultivars • Eggplant, Solanum melongena • Potato, Solanum tuberosum • double-flowered cole vegetables
The walnut has been used to expel worms.1 The leaf and the bark are an astrigent, and are used for excess menstruation.1
Considered stronger than it’s relative Butternut bark (Juglans ?) and less supsetible tofungus that grows on plants.
Black walnut is toxic in high doses. Awareness of black walnut toxicity dates back at least to Roman times, when Pliny noted a poisoning effect of walnut trees on “all” plants http://www.mygardengeek.com/docs/Tips/Trees%20Shrubs%20Vines/Black%20Walnut%20Toxicity-Purdue.pdf
Black walnut & toxicity
Twelve light horse geldings developed laminitis within 8 to 12 h of being dosed by nasogastric tube with an aqueous extract of black walnut (Juglans nigra). Four of the 12 horses developed the severe signs of grade 3 laminitis (lame at a walk, refused to lift feet). Laminitis was accompanied by mild depression and limb oedema
The horses developed neutropenia by 4h after dosing with the extract, which shifted to a relative neutrophilia by 8 to 12h. Minimal increases in plasma epinephrine and cortisol concentrations were suggested in severely affected horses. Severe laminitis was characterized by necrosis of dermal tips of dorsal primary epidermal laminae. A proliferative epithelial response in these laminae was distinguished by numerous mitotic figures and clusters of epithelial cells. This evidence suggests that black walnut toxicosis is not only a consistent clinical model, but is also a reliable clinico-pathological and pathological model for study of the pathogenesis and treatment of laminitis.
Anti tumour activity of mice
Antitumor activity of compounds present in Juglans nigra were studied on spontaneous and/or transplanted tumors in mice. Ellagic acid, juglone, and isolated fractions (strong acids, weak acids, and alkaloids) were injected intraperitoneally for 9–12 days. The results showed that ellagic acid, juglone, and the “strong acids” fraction depressed the tumor growth rate significantly.
Juglone and cancer
In human intestinal neoplasia juglone checked multiplicity of tumour cells and is also a strong inhibitor of peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 which is overexpressed in several types of cancer affected cells. Juglone increases efficacy of anti cancer drugs as well.
Juglans nigra and anti fungal activity
MIC values for juglone showed it to have moderate antifungal activity and to be as effective as certain commercially available antifungal agents such as zinc undecylenate and selenium sulfide.
Herb Name: Black Walnut
Others names: Eastern Black Walnut, European walnut
Latin name: Juglans nigra, Juglans regia
Common part used: Leaves, Bark, Husks
Description: Black Walnut is a tree with a thick bark, finely toothed narrow leaves, green catkins, and a round brown nut covered by a green husk.
Properties: Black Walnut is an herb that is used in herbal medicine to treat eczema, hemorrhoids, herpes, glandular disorders, hypothyroidism, gallbladder, liver, skin disorders, and ulcers (external). This herb helps to boost the immune system. It also helps to fight parasitic worms, scabies, and bacteria. The properties include: anthelmintics, anti-candida, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and astringent.
Contents: It contains tannins, essential oil, naphthalene derivatives (monoglucosides of juglone and hydrojuglone), flavonoids, ascorbic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid, and neo-chlorogenic acid.
Internal use: Black Walnut juice helps to cure intestinal parasitic worms. The bark can be chewed for toothaches. The inner-bark is a laxative. Black Walnut husk can be chewed for colic. Black Walnut leaves are often used for treating hemorrhoids, gallbladder, and liver problems. It fights abnormal growths and bacteria. The husk juice can be used as gargles for an inflamed mouth and throat (boiled with honey), as well as to relieve throat or stomach inflammation.
External use: Black Walnut leaf and juice is often used externally to treat skin disorders (eczema), ulcers, and herpes. The juice can help to fight ringworm, as well as bedbugs and scabies. The poultices are used for inflammation.
Essential oil and aromatherapy use: Black Walnut essential oil helps to treat herpes, eczema, and indolent ulcers.
Safety precautions: It is recommended to use Black Walnut in moderation and for limited periods. Some people may be allergic to this plant, and therefore it is advised to perform a skin patch test before using this plant.
Latin name: Juglans nigra
Family: N.O. Juglandaceae
Carya, Jupiter’s Nuts.
Walnuts are deciduous trees, 10–40 meters tall (about 30–130 ft), with pinnate leaves 200–900 millimetres long (7–35 in), with 5–25 leaflets; the shoots have chambered pith, a character shared with the wingnuts (Pterocarya) but not the hickories (Carya) in the same family.
The 21 species in the genus range across the north temperate Old World from southeast Europe east to Japan, and more widely in the New World from southeast Canada west to California and south to Argentina. The Latin name, Juglans, derives from Jupiter glans, “Jupiter’s acorn”: figuratively, a nut fit for a god. It is abundant in Kashmir, and is found in Sirmore, Kumdon and Nepal.
The bark and leaves have alterative, laxative, astringent and detergent properties, and are used in the treatment of skin troubles. They are of the highest value for curing scrofulous diseases, herpes, eczema, etc., and for healing indolent ulcers; an infusion of 1 OZ. of dried bark or leaves (slightly more of the fresh leaves) to the pint of boiling water, allowed to stand for six hours, and strained off is taken in wineglassful doses, three times a day, the same infusion being also employed at the same time for outward application. Obstinate ulcers may also be cured with sugar, well saturated with a strong decoction of Walnut leaves.
The bark, dried and powdered, and made into a strong infusion, is a useful purgative.
The husk, shell and peel are sudorific, especially if used when the Walnuts are green. Whilst unripe, the nut has wormdestroying virtues.
The fruit, when young and unripe, makes a wholesome, anti-scorbutic pickle, the vinegar in which the green fruit has been pickled proving a capital gargle for sore and slightly ulcerated throats. Walnut catsup embodies the medicinal virtues of the unripe nuts.
Herb Name: Walnut
Other Names: Black Walnut (juglas Nigra)
Latin Name: Juglans regia
Common parts Used: seed, leaves, bark
The Word walnut comes from English which means “foreign nut”. It is mostly grown in eastern Europe and Asia. It belongs to the family juglandaceae. Walnut grows on tree which 10 to 40 meter in height.
Walnut is edible. It is widely used as a dry fruit. Seed can be used raw as well as cooked. It is used in cakes, ice creams, sweets and some other dishes. Oil can be obtained from the seed which is used in salads. The wood of tree is also used for special furniture which is always safe from termites.
Walnut bark is used for the treatment of skin problems. It is also considered remedy for dysentery. It is also good for strength and growth of body. The leaves of walnut are used to treat eczema. The leaves of walnut are used internally for asthma, chronic cough and constipation. Walnut oil is used for menstrual problems and dry skin. Walnut plant different parts are also used as anticancer. The oil is also used for hair and is good for dandruff. In religious beliefs walnut is used to identify witches.