Wormwood

Other names: Absinthium, Absinthe (France), Green ginger, Sweet wormwood, and Wermut (Germany),  Absinthium, Wermutkraut, Absinthii Herba, Assenzio, Losna, Pelin, Armoise, Southernwood, Ajenjo and Alsem.

The name Artemisia is derived from the Goddess Artemis, the Greek name for Diana, who is said to have discovered the plant’s virtues (Simon et al., 1984), while absinthium comes from the Greek word apintbion meaning “undrinkable”, reflecting the very bitter nature of the plant.

https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9780429219566/chapters/10.1201/9780203303061-10

Scientific name: Artemisia absinthium

Common names:  green ginger, grand wormwood, American or Western wormwood, Madder wort, wormwood sage

Ayurvedic names:

Chinese names: Qing hao,   Ou zhou ai (Taiwan),  Yang ai.

Bangladesh names: Nagadana

Arabic names:    شيح ابن سينا  (sheeh ibnu seena)

Rainforest names:

Family: Asteraceae (daisy family)

Approximate number of species known: 200 / 400

Common parts used: Leaf, Flower, Seeds

Collection: July to October

Annual/Perennial: Perennial

Height: 2 to 4 feet

Actions: anthelmintic, anti-bilious anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, aromatic, carminative emmenagogue, febrifuge, hepatic, stimulant, tonic

Parts used: leaves and flowering tops which are gathered and then dried when the plant is in full bloom.

Description:

Herbaceous perennial. Straight stems with hard woody rhizome.

Grows .8-1.2m with silky silvery-white 

Trichomes, spirally arranged leaves, greenish-grey on top, white underneath, basal up to 25cm bipinnate to tripinnate along with long petioles, cauline leaves on the stem 5-10cm.

Flowers early summer to autumn are spherical yellow, tubular bent down.

Fruit is small achene.

Popular herb, toxic.

Grows commonly in gardens in semi-shaded, moist soil.

Found commonly in United States of America, Europe, Siberia next to fields and paths and on other uncultivated ground such as rocky areas.

https://www.herbcottage.com.au/wormwood.html

Traditional Use:

Used primarily as anti worming and antibacterial, Wormwood is a strong bitter that can help stimulate digestive function.  Used in cases of fever and infection.

Currently one of the main herbs used for malaria.

It was once used for the liver, fevers and to gently invoke appetitie.1   The oil from the wormwood has been used externally for sprains and bruises.  Wormwood oil is never ingested internally.

Wormwood has been considered addictive, and has been advised not to take in too high doses.1

Its use has been claimed to remedy indigestion and gastric pain, it acts as an antiseptic, and as a febrifuge. For medicinal use, the herb is used to make a tea for helping pregnant women during pain of labor. A dried encapsulated form of the plant is used as an anthelmintic.

A wine can also be made by macerating the herb. It is also available in powder form and as a tincture. The oil of the plant can be used as a cardiac stimulant to improve blood circulation. Pure wormwood oil is very poisonous, but with proper dosage poses little or no danger. Wormwood is mostly a stomach and anti bacterial product.  It should not be used in excess. 

The leaves and flowers are bitter in taste. 

Wormwood leaves are used as condiment. It is used for flavoring. The shoots are used as an insect repellent and are also used against mice. Wormwood is also used in spray against insects.

Wormwood is very bitter in taste. It is used as a remedy for different digestive disorders. It is also considered as a tonic for the liver and gallbladder. The people with weak digestive system should use Wormwood. The leaves are considered to be good antiseptic and anti-inflammatory. The leaves are chewed to increase appetite. The Wormwood is externally used for treatment of bites and small wounds. Wormwood should be used with expert consultation. 

Furthermore, several species of Artemisia are used in folk medicine, thus; A. vulgaris has been employed in the treatment of painful menstruation and in the induction of labor or miscarriage [8], A. mongolica Fisch has been used as a folk medicine for generations to cure inflammations and colds in northwest China [9], A. pontica L. is well known in Bulgarian folk medicine as a sedative and an appetizer [10]. Artemisia herba-alba Asso, (desert wormwood – known in Arabic as shih, Armoise blanche (Fr.)) [11], has been used in folk medicine by many cultures since ancient times, and in Moroccan folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension and/or diabetes [12-14]. Herbal tea from this species has been used as an analgesic, antibacterial, antispasmodic, and hemostatic agents 

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/eb9c/f12ad6d11e05416ff48f9b5b4befb25af16c.pdf

Wormwood traditionally used in Vermouth

From the 15th century Vermouth was produced as a medicinal tonic.

It is a fortified wine (with added alcohol) and infused with spices. Although Wormwood was originally used to impart the bitter flavour, other herbs such as Mugwort or Sagebrush of the  Artemisia genus of plants are more likely used in modern times .

The different between Vermouth and  Absinthe is that vermouth uses wormwood LEAF and absinthe uses wormwood ROOT.

Wormwood is an intensely bitter herb containing a chemical called thujone, that has become famous for being a component of absinthe.

Pythagorus, the genius of mathematics started a school before he died sometime around 500 BC. His wife, Theano then officiated over teaching and it is thought that she recommended it to women in labour.

Hippocrates, invented a digestif wine with wormwood to help gastric problems.

The Romans, used a wormwood wine, called it absintheum (Latin for Wormwood is artemisia absintheum) which was given to coliseum victors.

It arises in use again In the 14th/15th/16th century, where it was used as a cure for varying conditions, particularly in wealthy men.

At that point in  history its use changed and it began use as a drinking wine.

In 1786 it was first commercially produced as a luxury wine, ‘vermuth’  by Carpano in Italy

In 1816 it was produced by the Cinzano family under commercial production in Turin, Italy.

Known Constituents: 

Polyphenolic compounds were identified and quantified in A. absinthium leaves, including hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and other groups of phenolic compounds.

https://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=669038022011805;res=IELHSS

Constituents of aglycones (apigenin, quercetin, quercetin 3,37prime;-dimethyl ether) and flavonoid glycosides (rutin, hyperoside and kaempferol 3-rhamnoside).

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S100495411160013X?via%3Dihub

Phenolic acids, including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, vanillic acid, salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid that are responsible for some therapeutic effects. Absinthin and artabsin also have sesquiterpenes lactones, sesquiterpenoids alpha thujone, beta thujone, chrysanthenyl acetate thujone.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2221169115001604

Simple compounds in Wormwood

Artemisia dracunculus, one known alkamide, pellitorine, two new alkamides Neopellitorine A and Neopellitorine B, and one known coumarin herniarine were isolated.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0031942201003478

The most important being the sesquiterpene lactones that occur with great structural diversity within the genus Artemisia. Additional studies have focused on flavonoids and essential oils 

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/eb9c/f12ad6d11e05416ff48f9b5b4befb25af16c.pdf

Two new guaianolides and two seco-guaianolides, a nerolidol and a bisabolene derivative, four monoterpenes and two derivatives of p-coumaric acids.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0031942286800218

Flavonoid, artemisinin A (1), and four coumarins, artemicapins A (2), B (3), C (4) and D

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/eb9c/f12ad6d11e05416ff48f9b5b4befb25af16c.pdf

Acyclic monoterpenes, monoterpene hydroperoxide, bicyclic monoterpene glycosides and unusual monoterpenes have been found in some Iranian Artemisia species

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1874390011000917

Constituents and biological activities of Artemisia herba-alba 

Flavonoids 

The flavonoids detected in A. herba-alba show a large structural variation, ranging from common flavone and flavonol glycosides to more unusual highly methylated flavonoids. In studies of the leaves and steams of A. herba-alba collected from Sinai, a total of eight flavonoids O- and C-glycoside were isolated and identified [46, 47]. Examination of the aerial parts of A. herba-alba collected from Lebanese herbal stores led to the isolation of two flavonoids; hispidulin and cirsilineol [48] (Fig. 4). A new flavone, 5,4′- dihydroxy-6,7,3′-trimethoxyflavone, was isolated from the nonglycosidic extract of the aerial parts of A. herba-alba [49]. 4. Phenolic compounds & waxes Chlorogenic acid was observed in A. herba-alba, when a chemical survey of 49 Moroccan medicinal plant species was performed by ESR spectroscopy [50]. During a survey for antiulcerogenic principles of A. herba-alba, eight polyphenolics and related constituents were isolated. These included chlorogenic acid, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, isofraxidin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, rutin, schaftoside, isoschaftoside, and vicenin-2 [51]. In a study of the components of A. herba-alba wax, obtained in 0.23% yield by extraction of the dry plant with ether, contained 32.1% saturated C16-32 acids (35.2% C28 and 26.5% C30), 23.2% saturated. C21-31 hydrocarbons (67.7% C29 and 24.2% C31), 27.1% esters (mainly of saturated C18, C19, and C20 acids and saturated C22 and C24 alcohols.), and 16.96% saturated C16-26 alcohols. (C16 24.71%, C20 10.34%, C22 32.88%, and C24 22.96%) [52].

R= COMe, Herbolide A (1) R=H, Deacetylherbolide A (2) [29] Herbolide B (3) [29, 34] Herbolide C (4) [29] Herbolide D (5) [30] Herbolide E (6) [31] Herbolide F (7) [31] Herbolide G (8) [32] Herbolide H (9) [32] Herbolide I (10) [32,33] Torrentin (11) [35] Dihydroreynosin (12) [35] 11-Epitaurin (13) [37] Vachanic acid (14) [37] α, 13-Dihydrocostunolide (15)11 [37] 11β,13-Di-Hydrodouglanin acetate (16) [36] ∆ 4(15) (11αH), 11α,13-Dihydroreynosin (17) ∆ 4 (11αH), 11-Epiartesin (18) [36] α-Hydroxy-7α -eudesma-4(15),11(13)-dien-12-oic acid (19) 5 [38] 1β,8α-Dihydroxyeudesm-4-en-6β,7α,11βH-12,6-olide (20) [36] R = OH, ∆ 3 ,5αH, 11α, 13-Dihydrosantamarin (21) R = H, ∆ 4,5, 5αH,13-Dihydro-β-cyclocostunolide (22) [37]3-Epi-erivanin (23) [38] 1-Oxo-2α,3α,4α,5α-diepoxyeudesman-11βH-12,6α-olide (24) [39] 1β-Hydroxy colartin (25) [38] R1 = H, R2 = Me, R3 = OH, 11-Epicolartin (26) R1 = OH, R2 = Me, R3 = OH, 1β-Hydroxy-11-epicolartin (27) R1 = OH, R2 = Me, R3 = Me, 1β-Hydroxy-4,11-diepicolartin (28) [37] 1β-OH, 1β-Hydroxy-3β-propionyloxy- 6β,7α,11βH-eudesm-4-en-12, 6-olide (29) 1α-OH, 1α-Hydroxy-3β-propionyloxy- 6β,7α,11βH-eudesm-4-en-12, 6-olide (30) [38] R1 = β-OH, R2 = Ac (11αH), 11-Epitorrentin (31) R1 = α-OH, R2 = Ac (11αH), 1,11-Diepitorrentin (32) R1 = β-OH, R2 = H (11βH), Deacetyltorrentin (33) R1 = βOH, R2 = H (11αH), 11-Epi-deacetyltorrentin (34) [41] R = H, 1-Oxo-4α,5α-Epoxyeudesm-2 -en-11βH-12,6α-olide (35) R = OH, 1-Oxo-8α-Hydroxy-4α,5α- epoxyeudesm-2-en-11βH-12,6α-olide (36) [39] O O R O O Constituents and biological activities of Artemisia herba-alba 6 R = R` =H (11αH), 1-Oxoeudesma-2,4-dien -11αH-12,6α-olide (37) R = R` = H (11βH),1-Oxoeudesma-2,4-dien -11βH-12,6α-olide (38) R = OH, R` = H (11αH), 1-Oxo-8α-hydroxy- eudesma-2,4-dien-11αH-12,6α-olide (39) R = OH, R` = H (11βH), 1-Oxo-8α-hydroxy- eudesma-2,4-dien-11βH-12,6α-olide (40) R = H, R` = OH (11βH), 1-Oxo-15-hydroxy- eudesma-2,4-dien-11βH-12,6α-olide (41) [39] R = H, (11αH), 1-Oxo-2α,5α-peroxyeudesm -3-en-11αH-12,6α-olide (42) R = H (11βH), 1-Oxo-2α,5α-peroxyeudesm -3-en-11βH-12,6α-olide (43) R = OH (11βH), 1-Oxo-8α-Hydroxy-2α,5α -peroxyeudesm-3-en-11βH-12,6α-olide (44) [39] R = H, X = O (11αH), 1-Oxogermacra-4,10(14)- dien-6β,7α,11αH-12,6-olide (45) R = OH, X = H, βOH (11αH), 11-Epishonachalin A (46) R = OH, X = H, βOOH (11βH), 1β-Hydroperoxy-8α -hydroxygermacra-4,10(14)-dien-6β,7α,11βH-12,6-olide (47) [36] 2β-Hydroxy-13-oxo-α-cyperene (48) [43] 1β,5,12-Trihydroxygermacra-1(10), 4(15), 11(13)-triene (49) [43] 3β-Hydroxy-8-oxo-6βH,7αH,11βHgermacran-4(14),9(10)-dien-6,12-olide (50) [42] 7-Hydroxy-5,6-dehydro-4,5-dihydrolyratrol (51) [43] 2,6,10-Trimethyl-Cis-7,10-oxido-dodeca-3E,11-dien-2-ol-5-one (52) [42] R1 = H, R2 = OH, R3 = Ac, R4 = H, R5 = H, 5a-Hydroxy-11,13-dihydroreynosin acetate (53) R1 = R2 = R3 =R4 = H, R5 = OH, 9b-Hydroxy-11,13-dihydroreynosin (54) [43] 5β,9β-Dihydroxy-1-Oxo-germacra-1(10),4(15)-dien-12,6-olide (55) [43] 1β-Hydroxy-6βH,7αH,11αH-germacran4(5)-10(15)-dien-6,12-olide (56) [42] 3β, 8α-Dihydroxy-6βH,7aH,11βH-germacran-4(14),9(10)-dien-6,12-olide (57) [42] Herbalbin (58) [45] (3 R,4S,7R)-3,7-Dimethyl-4,7-epoxynon-8-enoic acid (59) [44] 1β,9β-Dihydroxyeudesm-3-en-5α,6β,11βH-12,6-olide (60) [44] R = H, 1-Oxo-9β-Hydroxgermacra-4,10(14)-dien-6β,11βH-12,6-olide (61) R = Ac, 1-Oxo-9β-Acetoxygermacra-4,10(14)-dien-6β,11βH-12,6-olide (62) R =R` = H, Deacetylherbolide D (63) R = H, R` = Ac, 1b-Hydroxy-9b-acetoxygermacra -4,10(14)-dien-6b,11bH-12,6-olide (64) [44] 1β,9β-Diacetoxyeudesm-4-en-6β,11bH-12,6-olide (65) [15]

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/eb9c/f12ad6d11e05416ff48f9b5b4befb25af16c.pdf

Oil including absinthol, thujyl, isovaleric acid; sesquiterpenes, flavanoid glycosides

Its active substances include silica, two bitter elements (absinthine and anabsinthine), thujone, tannic and resinous substances, malic acid, and succinic acid. 

Sesquiterpenoid lactones include three new santanolides, ludovicin-A (III), -B (VI) and -C (VIII), and the known douglanine (I).  https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0031942200851535

 5,4′-dihydroxy-3,6,7,3′-tetramethoxyflavone, five sesquiterpenoid lactones have been isolated from Artemisia cana Pursh. ssp. cana. These include the new compounds canin, artecanin, and ridentin, and the known matricarin and deacetylmatricarin. The structure of canin, a new guaianolide, has been shown to be IV on the basis of chemical transformations and spectral evidence.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0031942200859245

The volatile constituents of Artemisia annua L. plants, grown in the field in The Netherlands from seeds of Chinese and Vietnamese origin, were investigated using GC and GC–MS (EI, NICI) analysis. The plants grown from Chinese seeds contained 4.0% (v/w) essential oil on a dry weight (DW) basis, those from Vietnamese seeds, 1.4% (v/w). More than forty compounds were identified. The principal component of the Chinese oil was artemisia ketone (63.9%); other major constituents included artemisia alcohol (7.5%), myrcene (5.1%), α‐guaiene (4.7%) and camphor (3.3%). In the Vietnamese oil the main components were camphor (21.8%) and germacrene‐D (18.3%); other important constituents were β‐caryophyllene (5.6%), trans‐β‐farnesene (3.8%) and 1,8‐cineole (3.1%). In the Vietnamese variety the terpenoid biosynthesis proceeded further towards sesquiterpenes, whereas in the Chinese predominantly monoterpenes were formed. This was also reflected in the artemisinin contents, found in dichloromethane extracts of the herbaceous plant material: 0.17% (DW) in Chinese and 1.00% (DW) in Vietnamese plants. 

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ffj.2730080303

Oil constituents

Common components of oil

camphor, β-eudesmol, 1,8-cineole, borneol, artemisia alcohol, camphene, α-gurjunene, p-cymene, terpinene-4-ol and α-pinene.

https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-2007-969551

75 total components of oil

One study found Forty-two of seventy-five separated constituents in essential oil, accounting for 89.03% of the total content, were identified. 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0731708504000585

Artemisia arborescens oil containing 100 components with Thujone, camphor and chamazulene being the majority

Artemisia arborescens L. growing in Sassari (Osilo) in Sardinia. This oil is coloured blue by the presence of relatively high amounts (11.32%) of chamazulene, a substance with anti-inflammatory properties. The oil, after separation in fractions on a silica gel column, was investigated by means of capillary GLC and capillary GLC-MS. Thujone, camphor and chamazulene account for about 75% of the oil. Almost a hundred minor components were found by capillary GLC and 44 were identified.

Volatile oils of Artemisia are chemically complex mixtures, often containing in excess of 100 individual components for instance in the oil of Artemisia siberi more than 160 constituents were identified.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1874390011000917

Generally, the oil was largely reported to be composed of monoterpenoids, mainly oxygenated, such as 1,8-cineole, chrysanthenone, chrysanthenol (and its acetate), α/β-thujones, and camphor as the major components 

Samples of A. herba-alba collected at Elat contained chrysanthenyl acetate as major component (31%) followed by chrysanthenol (6.4%) and the acetophenone xanthocyclin, the essential oil of A. herba-alba from the Judean desert exhibited 1,8-cineole as the major compound (50%) followed by appreciable amounts of α- and β-thujone (27%) and other oxygenated monoterpenes such as terpinen-4-ol (3.3%), camphor (3%) and borneol (3%).

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/eb9c/f12ad6d11e05416ff48f9b5b4befb25af16c.pdf

Jordan oil

In Jordan, regular monoterpenes were predominant (39.3%) and the principal components were α- and β-thujones (27.7%). The other major identified components were: sabinyl acetate (5.4%), germacrene D (4.6%), α-eudesmol (4.2%) and caryophyllene acetate (5.7%)

Morocco oil

In Morocco, the oil there was generally characterized by substantial levels of ketones such as α- and βthujones and camphor [65, 66, 67], whereas davanone and/or chrysanthenyl acetate were the major oil

components in other chemotypes

Spanish wormwood oil

Spain showed that monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpene are the most abundant skeletons in A. herba-alba oil, but large amounts of sesquiterpenes were found for some populations. Camphor, 1,8-cineole, p-cymene and davanone were the major components found. 

The Spanish oil contained large amounts of sesquiterpenes but lacked significant quantities of thujane derivatives. However, a more recent investigation from Spain showed the sesquiterpene davanone to be the principal component of the oil, which was also dominated by the p-menthane and pinane skeletons.

Tunisian wormwood oil

In Tunisian oil oxygenated monoterpenes were found to be the major components of A. herba-alba oil extracted from aerial parts of plants originated from arid regions [76, 77]. In another study of the Tunisian Artemisia herba-alba oil, the main components were cineole, thujones, chrysanthenone, camphor, borneol, chrysanthenyl acetate, sabinyl acetate, davana ethers and davanone. Monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes are found in some samples as major components.

Algerian wormwood oil

Algerian oil, camphor, α/β-thujones, 1,8-cineole and chrysanthenyl derivatives were the major components [79, 80, 81]. In another studies, camphene (3%), borneol (3.6%), davana ether (8.8%), davanone (36.1%) were the major components [82-88]. The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of A. herba-alba growing wild in M’sila-Algeria, contained camphor (19.4%), trans-pinocarveol (16.9%), chrysanthenone (15.8%) as major components. Monoterpenoids are the main components (86.1%) and the 11 Mohamed et al., Rec. Nat. Prod. (2010) 4:1 1-25 irregular monoterpenes (3.1%) [89]. On the other hand, other components have previously been found in other A. herba-alba oils such as (Z)-jasmone, xanthoxylin were not detected in this oil [90, 91]. One study of A. herba-alba in Cyrenaica (Libya) had reported that the dried grass contained 0.29% of an essential oil containing 6.7% cineole.

Constituents Explained:

What are Sesquiterpene lactones?

Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) are probably the largest class of secondary metabolites in plants, with over 5000 structures reported to date.

What are guaianolides?

A group of sesquiterpene lactones isolated from various composite plants of the family Asteraceae.

What are Thujone, camphor and chamazulene?

Thujone is a monoterpene ketone naturally found in  differing quantities in a number of plants.

Chamazulene provides the characteristic stunning marine bluish-green  indigo colour of wormwood oil.

Camphor is a terpene (organic compound that is bitter tasting and has antibacterial properties.

Carvone and piperitone as antifungals

The antifungal activity of Artemisia herba-alba was found to be associated with two major volatile compounds isolated from the fresh leaves of the plant. Carvone and piperitone were isolated and identified by GC/MS, GC/IR, and NMR spectroscopy. Antifungal activity was measured against Penicillium citrinum (ATCC 10499) and Mucora rouxii (ATCC 24905). The antifungal activity (IC50) of the purified compounds carvone and piperitone was estimated to be 5 µg/ml and 2 µg/ml against Penicillium citrinum, and 7 µg/ml and 1.5 µg/ml against Mucora rouxii, respectively [99]. In another study, the antifungal activity of the Constituents and biological activities of Artemisia herba-alba 12 essential oils of 25 Moroccan medicinal plants, including A. herba-alba, against Penicillium digitatum, Phytophthora citrophthora, Geotrichum citri-aurantii, and Botrytis cinerea. A. herba-alba essential oil showed only weak antifungal activity at 250 µg/ml concentration [100]. In addition, the effect of A. herba-alba, Eucalyptus, and Rosmarinus essential oils was evaluated on the mycelial growth and toxigenesis of Penicillium aurantiogriseum and P. vindication. A significant decrease in mycelial dry weight was obtained with the addition of 0.05-2.5% of each of the three essential oils in yeast extract sucrose broth. The inhibition of mycelium growth was tested on malt extract agar, Czapeck yeast agar, yeast extract sucrose agar and broth at constant pH, and was highly effective for A. herba-alba, followed by Eucalyptus. A complete inhibition of toxin production was observed with 0.44% of each essential oil for P. aurantiogriseum and 0.22% for P. viridicatum. 

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/eb9c/f12ad6d11e05416ff48f9b5b4befb25af16c.pdf

Clinical Studies:

Wormwood as potential insecticide properties

Artemisia species, widespread in nature, are frequently utilized for the treatment of diseases such as malaria, hepatitis, cancer, inflammation, and infections by fungi, bacteria, and viruses. Furthermore, some Artemisia constituents were found to be potential insecticides and allelopathic chemicals.

https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/s-2006-957438

Ussr and cancer consideration

The genus Artemisia is known to contain many bioactive compounds; artemisinin exerts not only antimalarial activity but also profound cytotoxicity against tumor cells [2] and arglabin is employed for treating certain types of cancer in the former USSR 

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/eb9c/f12ad6d11e05416ff48f9b5b4befb25af16c.pdf

Wormwood as an anti snake venom

Aqueous extracts of 12 medicinal plants traditionally used in Jordan for the inhibition in humans of snake and scorpion venoms were evaluated for their possible anti-venom activity. Among the plants tested, 9 extracts were found to inhibit the hemolytic activities of both venoms. The most active plant extract was Artemisia herba-alba, which gave 100% inhibition 

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/eb9c/f12ad6d11e05416ff48f9b5b4befb25af16c.pdf

Wormwood oil as an anti fungal

A. herba-alba essential oil has been evaluated on various microorganisms. The oil showed a very strong action vs. Candida and Microsporum. 

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/eb9c/f12ad6d11e05416ff48f9b5b4befb25af16c.pdf

Wormwood as an insecticide against roundworm

The in-vitro nematicidal activity of methanolic extracts (20 µg/ml) from twenty Jordanian plant species against two species of root-knot nematodes (roundworms) was evaluated. The leaf extract of Artemisia herba-alba was the most effective causing 22, 51, and 54% mortality after 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure, respectively 

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/eb9c/f12ad6d11e05416ff48f9b5b4befb25af16c.pdf

Wormwood as an antibacterial

The essential oils from four Artemisia herba-alba populations collected in Israel (Sde-Boker, Mitzpe Ramon, Judean desert and Elat) were investigated for their antibacterial activity. All the oils had slight antibacterial activities in the concentration range of 1-2 mg/ml. The oils were active against gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella typhosa, Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and against gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus hemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus). The oil derived from the Sde Boker variety exhibited the highest antibacterial activity, especially against the Streptococcus, Pseudomonas and Serratia strains tested. This oil, as well as those from Mizpe Ramon and the Judean Desert, showed relative high activity against S. sonnei and S. typhosa whereas they were almost inactive against E. coli. The oil derived from plants collected near Elat possessed very low activities.

The oil showed a very strong action vs. Staphylococcus, The inhibiting 13 Mohamed et al., Rec. Nat. Prod. (2010) 4:1 1-25 action of the oils was low vs. the enterobacteria [106]. The aqueous extract of A. herba-alba possessed relatively weak antibacterial activity and virtually little or no inhibitory activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae [110]. The antibacterial activity of A. herba-alba performed against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli showed no significant activity against either species

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/eb9c/f12ad6d11e05416ff48f9b5b4befb25af16c.pdf

Wormwood against mycoplasmas

Mycoplasmas are one of the smallest free-living microorganisms. Unlike other bacteria they lack a rigid cell wall. Hence, they are not susceptible to penicillins and other antimicrobials that act on this structure. Artemisia herba-alba, was one among six Jordanian traditional medicinal plant methanolic extracts that were tested against 32 isolates of Mycoplasma species. The result of this study showed that the most effective plant extract in vitro against all Mycoplasma species was A. herba-alba with MIC values of 3.125-6.25 mg/ml

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/eb9c/f12ad6d11e05416ff48f9b5b4befb25af16c.pdf

Wormwood and HIV activity

Antiplatelet aggregation activity and three compounds (10, 17, and 51) demonstrated significant activity against HIV replication in H9 lymphocytic 

Cells.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096808960000225X

Wormwood & anti platelet activity

showed antiplatelet aggregation activity and three compounds (10, 17, and 51) – what are the 3 compounds?

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096808960000225X

Wormwood against larvae & plant fungus

larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd). trans-Ethyl cinnamate (LD50 = 0.37 μg/larva) was more toxic than piperitone (LD50 = 0.68 μg/larva). The two isolated compounds revealed antifeedant activity in a concentration dependent manner, with complete feeding inhibition at a concentration of 1000 μg/ml. When tested for antifungal activity against four plant pathogenic fungi, the isolated compounds exhibited a moderate to high activity.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960852407008966

Artemisinin as antimalarial

artemisinin from Artemisia annua and its worldwide accepted application in malaria therapy is one of the showcase success stories of phytomedicine during the past decades. Artemisinin-type compounds are also active towards other protozoal or viral diseases as well as cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

Antifungal activity of  Artemisia dracunculus oil

The isolation and structure elucidation of antifungal constituents of the steam-distilled essential oil fraction of Artemisia dracunculus are described. Antifungal activities of 5-phenyl-1,3-pentadiene and capillarin against Colletrotichum fragariae, Colletrotichum gloeosporioides, and Colletrotichum acutatum are reported for the first time. The relative abundance of 5-phenyl-1,3-pentadiene is about 11% of the steam-distilled oil, as determined by GC−MS. Methyleugenol was also isolated and identified as an antifungal constituent of the oil.

Artemisia leaves increase monocytes in chickens

Artemisia leaves increased monocyte levels in chickens with no effect on gastric pH or antibodies.

https://academic.oup.com/ps/article/90/11/2500/1502049

Antibacterial effects of x

These compounds showed insecticidal activity against Sitophilus oryzae and Rhyzopertha dominica

These compounds showed insecticidal activity against Sitophilus oryzae and Rhyzopertha dominica

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0031942201003478

Artemisa effect on Malaria in Uganda

Malaria is a major public health problem in Uganda endemic in 95% contributing up to 40% of hospital outpatient attendances

Artemisinin as a phytotoxin to other plants

Artemisinin (qinghaosu), a sesquiterpenoid lactone peroxide constituent of annual wormwood (Artemisia annua L. # ARTAN) that is used as an antimalarial drug, was tested for phytotoxic properties

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/weed-science/article/artemisinin-a-constituent-of-annual-wormwood-artemisia-annua-is-a-selective-phytotoxin/B88DA7DFA2C12D4850E6954643455024

Wormwood as having a potential beneficial effect on cytokines

in vitro studies showed suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and other interleukins by wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) extracts in patients with Crohn’s disease. That patients’ mood also improved.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944711309002682

Wormwood and enzyme activity perturbed by lead 

In a study of lead-induced disease including oxidase stress levels, wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) extract had a protective role against lipid peroxidation and restored the enzyme activities of glutathione peroxidase and RBC-superoxide dismutase which has been perturbed by exposure to lead. 

https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajtcam/article/view/31282

Wormwood and IgA neuropathy

An alternative safe treatment to managing proteinuria in patients with IgA nephropathy was found inThujone-free wormwood.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20843592

Wormwood in Iran & potential antidepressant

A study of Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae)  Used in traditional Iranian medicine, shows increased anitoxidant activity along with antidepressant effect.

https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ajb/article/view/68818

Wormwood and potential antioxidant properties

A study of the methanol extract of Artemisia absinthium Linn.showed that it had neuroprotective properties shows by lipid peroxidation reduction and endogenous antioxidant restoration (GSH and SOD). Phenols and flavonoids are thought to contribute to the free-radical scavenging effects. A. absinthium may be used as protective agent against disorders associated with oxidative stress.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/13880209.2011.578142

Wormwood and anticoccidial properties in goats

 Artemisia absinthium, was less efficacious against caprine coccidiosis as compared to amprolium and toltrazuril although A. absinthium  has been reported to be highly effective against other parasites in ruminants.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12639-012-0137-9

Artemisia and staphylococcus aureus

Artemisia absinthium has been shown to bear strong antimicrobial activity, especially against Gram-positive pathogens. Topical application of A. absinthium on wound sites infected by S. aureus in a rat model, produced significant antibacterial activity.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12088-012-0283-x

Toxicity of Thujone

Neurotoxicity is the main consequence of excess Thujone consumption although further study is considered

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0273230012002218