Scientific name: Taraxacum officinale

Common names: Lions tooth, blow ball, puff ball

Ayurvedic names: Dugdhapheni, Lootari, Payasvini

Chinese names: Pu-kung-ying

Bangladesh names:

Arabic names:    الهندباء (al handabaa’e)

Rain Forest names:

Family: Fabaceae

Approximate number of species known:

Common parts used: Root, leaf, whole herb

Collection: March to september

Annual/Perennial: Perennial

Height: 2 to 18 inches

Actions: Anti-bilious, Anti-rheumatic, Cholagogue, hepatic, laxative, tonic

Known Constituents:  Glycosides, triterpenoids, choline, potassium, sodium, iron, vitamin A, vitamin C

An analysis of the nutrient content of dandelion reveals high amounts of minerals, proteins, fiber, and vitamins and a balanced combination of trace elements (Table S1), making dandelion an interesting source of micronutrients.3,–6

Comparison of the nutritional composition of dandelion with that of lettuce and spinach, i.e., vegetables with similar culinary uses, shows dandelion to have a higher content of dietary fiber and proteins and a greater variety of amino acids and of most vitamins and minerals (Table S1). Dandelion consists of 1.5% lipids (total weight) and has higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, palmitoleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids) than either lettuce or spinach.4 Dandelion is also one of the richest green-vegetable sources of β-carotene.6


Dandelion’s bitterness is due to its sesquiterpene lactones, mostly of the eudesmanolide and germacranolide types, that are unique to this plant. Major sesquiterpene lactones – generally occurring as glycosides – include taraxacolides, dihydro-lactucin, ixerin, taraxinic acids, and ainslioside.10,11 Although the most biologically relevant components of dandelion are the sesquiterpene lactones (suggested to exert anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects), the plant also contains several phenylpropanoids (shown to exert inflammation-modulating effects), terpenoids, polysaccharides (shown to play a role in immune regulation and to exert platelet anti-aggregation activity, hepatoprotective effects, and antitumoral activity), and inulin (currently under investigation for its immunostimulatory functions). Several studies show that dandelion is also a rich source of vitamins (A, C, D, E, and B), choline, inositol, lecithin, minerals, and oligoelements (calcium, sodium, magnesium, iron, silicon, copper, phosphorus, zinc, manganese).12,–14 Moreover, dandelion contains a high level of potassium


Dandelion root Phytochemicals group Biological activities Phytochemicals 
Terpenes Sesquiterpene lactones Tetrahydroridentin B 
 Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties Taraxacolide-O-β-glucopyranoside 
  Acylated γ-butyrolactone glycoside 
  Ixerin D 
  Taraxinic acid β-glucopyranoside 
  11,13-dihydro-taraxinic acid β-glucopyranoside 
 Triterpenes/phytosterols Taraxasterol 
 Promote reduced cholesterol absorption Ψ-taraxasterol 
  α- amyrin 
  β- amyrin 
Phenolic compounds Phenolic acids Chicoric acid 
 Inmunostimulatory properties Monocaffeoyltartaric acid 
  4-caffeoylquinic acid 
  Chlorogenic acid 
  Caffeic acid 
  ρ-coumaric acid 
  Ferulic acid 
  ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid 
  Protocatechuic acid 
  Vanillic acid 
  Syringic acid 
  ρ-hydroxyphenylacetic acid 
 Coumarins Umbelliferone 
 Act on cardiovascular system Esculetin 
Storage carbohydrate Inulin  
 Prebiotic activity  
Aerial dandelion parts (leaves and stems) 
Terpenes Sesquiterpene lactones Taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranoside 
 Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties 11,13-dihydrotaraxinic-acid β-D-glucopyranoside 
 Triterpenes/phytosterols Arnidiol 
 Promote reduced cholesterol absorption β-sitosterol 
  β- amyrin 
Phenolic compounds Phenolic acids Chicoric acid 
 Inmunostimulatory properties Monocaffeoyltartaric acid 
  Caffeic acid 
  Chlorogenic acid 
  ρ-hydroxyphenylacetic acid 
 Flavonoids Luteolin 7-O-glucoside 
 Antioxidant properties Luteolin 7-O-rutinoside 
  Isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside 
  Quercetin 7-O-glucoside 
  Apigenin 7-O-glucoside 
 Coumarins Cichoriin 
 Acts on cardiovascular system Aesculin 
Dandelion flowers   
Phenolic compounds Phenolic acids Caffeic acid 
 Inmunostimulatory properties Chlorogenic acid 
  Monocaffeoyltartaric acid 
 Flavonoids Luteolin 7-O-glucoside 
 Antioxidant properties Luteolin 7-diglucoside 
  Free luteolin 
  Free chrysoeriol 

^  Need to just put on one line  ie

Flowers:  Penolic acids – Caffeic acid

Flavanoids – Luteolin 7-)-glucoside

Constituents based on season

It is notable that the phytochemical composition of dandelion depends on the season in which it is gathered, the time of harvesting, as well as other ecological factors, and it varies greatly among the flowers, leaves, and roots of the plant. As an example, the final content of inulin in dandelion roots is determined by the conversion of inulin into laevulose (which varies from 2% in spring to 40% in autumn) and other sugars during the active period of the plant’s life.2,16 As mentioned, sesquiterpene lactones impart a bitter taste to the plant, which is especially pronounced in the leaves but is also noticeable in the roots, particularly when harvested in the spring.17 Of the free sterols present in dandelion leaves throughout the year, sitosterol is the most abundant, followed by stigmasterol and campesterol. However, levels of free methyl sterols are highest during the winter months, whereas levels of sitosterol and cycloartenol esters levels are highest during periods of sunshin

^above link has everything even clinical sstudies please reword

Temperature effecting phenol and gallic acid extracts

 temperature increased from 60 to 100 °C. An increase in temperature from 60 to 100 °C increased the concentration of total phenols extracted from 39 ± 2 to 63 ± 3 mg g−1 gallic acid equivalents, although it did not significantly affect the proportion of tannin and non-tannin fractions.

β-Amyrin and β-sitosterol

Constituents Explained:


Needs description of tree

Dandelion and bee problem  pls do more resarch

Traditional Use:

One of the world’s most widely used herbs.  The leaf has received a reputation amongst herbalists as a kidney tonic and diuretic that is high in potassium.  Generally the high amounts of potassium and sodium give it a reputation as alkalizing herb among herbalists. Its action on the kidneys may be why it is sometimes given in cases of high blood pressure.

An old fashioned remedy for anaemia, The root has received a reputation for being a liver tonic and blood cleanser, where it is often used on both the liver, and the gallbladder.  Its detoxifying effect can sometimes see it have a slight detoxifying effect.

Its been used for a variety of skin conditions.  The leaf is rich in vitamins A, C and iron.

Jethro Kloss used it for diabetes, inflammation in the bowels, fever, and to tone the female organs.1

The root has been used instead of coffee, and makes a very healthy alternative.

Dandelion in food

the leaves are commonly used in salads.

Clinical Studies:

Notoriously chemoresistant melanoma has become the most prevalent form of cancer for the 25-29 North American age demographic. Standard treatment after early detection involves surgical excision (recurrence is possible), and metastatic melanoma is refractory to immuno-, radio-, and most harmful chemotherapies. 

Various natural compounds have shown efficacy in killing different cancers, albeit not always specifically. In a study, it was shown that dandelion root extract (DRE) specifically and effectively induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells without inducing toxicity in noncancerous cells. 

Characteristic apoptotic morphology of nuclear condensation and phosphatidylserine flipping to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of A375 human melanoma cells was observed within 48 hours.

DRE-induced apoptosis activates caspase-8 in A375 cells early on, demonstrating employment of an extrinsic apoptotic pathway to kill A375 cells. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generated from DRE-treated isolated mitochondria indicates that natural compounds in DRE can also directly target mitochondria.

Interestingly, the relatively resistant G361 human melanoma cell line responded to DRE when combined with the metabolism interfering antitype II diabetic drug metformin. Therefore, treatment with this common, yet potent extract of natural compounds has proven novel in specifically inducing apoptosis in chemoresistant melanoma, without toxicity to healthy cells.


Chatterjee SJ, Ovadie P, Mousa M, Hamm C, Pandey S. “The Efficacy Of Dandelion Root Extract I Inducing Apoptosis In Drug-Resistant Human Melanoma Cells.” 2011



Herb Name: Dandelion

Other names: Priest’s Crown. Swine’s Snout. 

Latin name: Taraxacum officinale

Family: N.O. Compositae

Common part used: Root, leaves.

The dandelion is a common and widespread plant, well known in all the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, though it does not grow in the Southern regions of the globe. Indeed, it is so widespread that it is considered a weed by most farmers. The plant prefers meadows and empty land as it’s habitat, and it blooms and disperses it’s seeds throughout the year.

The Dandelion is an extremely well adapted plant, with long uneven leaves that arise from a thick tap root. The leaves lie scattered on the ground around the root, yet are subtly designed to transfer all the water that falls on them directly to the central root. This design is essential to the very survival of this species, as the leaves are otherwise too closely packed to allow water to penetrate to the root.

The leaves themselves are glossy, with the edges of the leaves being very jagged. In ancient times these leaves were thought to bear a resemblance to a lions tooth, hence the name Dandelion, from Dent de Lion. There are different varieties of the Dandelion plant with differently shaped leaves.

Flower stalks arise out of the root of the plant, plain, hollow and without leaves. These stalks bear single flowers. Each of these flowers consists of many tiny florets which are yellow. The corolla of the flower sinks down into a tube, shaped rather like a claw, containing an ovary and a large amount of nectar, which is one of the aspects that makes the Dandelion such a prolific and successful species, as this attracts vast numbers of pollinating insects that contribute to the spread of the species.

This aspect of the plant also gives the Dandelion considerable economic importance as it contributes to the sustenance of various bee-colonies hosted by humans for the production of honey. Indeed, this is especially important as Dandelion flowers persist from early spring to late autumn, nullifying the need to feed the bee-colonies with artificial foods during that time.

The dandelion is incredibly well evolved – bracts around the base of the flower-heads protect against insects that do not pollinate, and the flowers themselves react rapidly to changing weather conditions, closing at the slightest sign of bad weather, as well as at night.

The seeds, when ripe are dispersed by the wind.

Young Dandelion leaves make an excellent salad and are common in Europe and especially in France. They can even be placed in sandwiches. The flowers are used to make famous Dandelion wine. The roots are used to make Dandelion coffee. Dandelion root is used as a general stimulant and tonic, especially benefiting the urinary system, the kidneys and the liver.