Temperature

• Temperature (sometimes called thermodynamic temperature) is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a system. Adding heat to a system causes its temperature to rise.

Thermochemistry

• Thermochemistry is the study of the heat energy associated with chemical reactions and/or physical transformations. A reaction may release or absorb energy, and a phase change may do the same, such as in melting and boiling.

Energy

• The capacity for doing work. It may exist in potential, kinetic, thermal, electrical, chemical, nuclear, or other various forms. There are, moreover, heat and workâ€”i.e., energy in the process of transfer from one body to another.

Entropy

• Entropy, the measure of a system’s thermal energy per unit temperature that is unavailable for doing useful work. Because work is obtained from ordered molecular motion, the amount of entropy is also a measure of the molecular disorder, or randomness, of a system.

Heat

• Heat is a form of energy that can be transferred from one object to another or even created at the expense of the loss of other forms of energy.

Heat Capacity

• It is the amount of heat required to change its temperature by one degree, and has units of energy per degree.
• Heat capacity C is how much energy is required per unit temperature.

Heat Transfer

• Heat transfer is the process of transfer of heat from high temperature reservoir to low temperature reservoir.
• Heat can be transferred by conduction, convection and radiation

Pressure-Volume Diagrams

• It is used to describe corresponding changes in volume and pressure in a system. They are commonly used in thermodynamics, cardiovascular physiology, and respiratory physiology.

Thermodynamic System

• A thermodynamic system is a group of material and/or radiative contents. Its properties may be described by thermodynamic state variables such as temperature, entropy, internal energy, and pressure.

• An adiabatic process occurs without transfer of heat or mass of substances between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings. In an adiabatic process, energy is transferred to the surroundings only as work.

Enthalpy

• Enthalpy, a property of a thermodynamic system, is equal to the system’s internal energy plus the product of its pressure and volume. In a system enclosed so as to prevent mass transfer, for processes at constant pressure, the heat absorbed or released equals the change in enthalpy.

Hess’s Law

• Hess’s Law of Constant Heat Summation (or just Hess’s Law) states that regardless of the multiple stages or steps of a reaction, the total enthalpy change for the reaction is the sum of all changes.

Gibbs Free Energy

• The Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure.

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

• The coefficient of thermal expansion describes how the size of an object changes with a change in temperature. Specifically, it measures the fractional change in size per degree change in temperature at a constant pressure.

Phase Diagram

• A phase diagram is a graph showing the limiting conditions for solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of a single substance or of a mixture of substances while undergoing changes in pressure and temperature or in some other combination of variables, such as solubility and temperature.